Aggregate is defined
as a granular material used in construction, which may be natural,
manufactured or re-cycled.
aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse
particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel,
crushed stone, slag, and recycled concrete.
Aggregates are a
component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete;
the aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall
Natural Aggregates or
Primary Aggregates are naturally occurring materials of rock, sand and
gravel. These are extracted directly from land or marine sources for use
or Manufactured Aggregates are by-products of industrial processes such
as steel slag or pulverised fuel ash from power stations.
also include Mineral Wastes, which are materials arising as a by-product
of mineral extraction. They are capable for use, either with or without
further treatment, as a primary aggregate substitute, e.g. slate waste
and certain crushed rock fines.
are previously used materials that are capable of being substituted for
primary aggregates. These include waste material from construction
operations; the demolition of buildings or structures and railway
aggregate is produced from materials such as clay, shale, or slate.
Blast furnace slag,
natural pumice, vermiculite, and perlite can be used as substitutes.
To produce lightweight
aggregate, the raw material (excluding pumice) is expanded to about
twice the original volume of the raw material.
The expanded material
has properties similar to natural aggregate, but is less dense and
therefore yields a lighter concrete product.
is a type of coarse aggregate that is used in the production of
lightweight concrete products such as concrete block, structural
concrete, and pavement.
warehouses, shopping centers, and workplaces all require foundations
composed of aggregate, as well as concrete footers, asphalt parking
lots, manufactured bricks, blocks and poured walls.
According to the USGS,
U.S. crushed stone production was 1.69 billion tonnes valued at $12.1
billion, of which limestone was 1,090 million tonnes valued at $7.49
billion from 1,904 quarries, granite was 263 million tonnes valued at
$2.16 billion from 339 quarries, traprock was 130 million tonnes valued
at $1.04 billion from 348 quarries, and the balance other kinds of stone
from 597 quarries.
Currently, total U.S.
aggregate demand by final market sector was 30%-35% for non-residential
building (offices, hotels, stores, manufacturing plants, government and
institutional buildings, and others), 25% for highways, and 25% for
can be recycled as aggregates. Unlike deposits of sand and gravel or
stone suitable for crushing into aggregate, which can be anywhere and
may require overburden removal and/or blasting, "deposits" of recyclable
aggregate tend to be concentrated near urban areas, and production from
them cannot be raised or lowered to meet demand for aggregates.
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