- An alkaloid is,
strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,
but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids.
- Alkaloids are usually
classified by their common molecular feat, based on the metabolic
pathway used to construct the molecule.
- Alkaloids are usually
derivatives of amino acids, and many have a bitter taste.
- The alkaloids are
organic nitrogenous bases found mainly in plants, but also to a lesser
extent in microorganisms and animals.
- Alkaloids containing
quaternary amines are also found in nature.
- Purine alkaloids can
be extracted from ground herbal mate tea (Ilex paraguaryensis) using a
- The production of
alkaloids from Cereus peruvianus callus cultured in medium supplemented
with different tyrosine concentrations, different 2,4-D/kinetin levels,
and with NaCl was investigated using long-term callus culture.
- α- and β-Esterase
isozyme patterns were also analyzed to investigate the differential gene
expression in callus subcultured with the different tyrosine
- A critical evaluation
of the limitations of the submerged fermentation(SmF) process for ergot
alkaloids production and the well recognized advantages of the solid
state fermentation(SSF) technique indicate that the latter is more
suited for alkaloid production.
- Nojirimycin (1; NJ),
isolated from a Streptomyces filtrate, was the first polyhydroxylated
alkaloid discovered to be a carbohydrate mimic. More than one hundred of
these carbohydrate mimics, commonly called azasugars or iminosugars.
- The ability of
azasugars to act as inhibitors of glycosidases is a result of their
ability to resemble the structure of natural substrates in their shape
or charge or both.
- Extraction of
alkaloids Using new extraction technique from natural products such as
Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of
the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting
- Ephedrine alkaloids
were promoted as weight control aids, energy boosters, and athletic
- The value of EU
imports of medicinal plants stabilised at € 375 million, while the value
of EU imports of medicinal and vegetable saps & extracts (€ 101
million), and vegetable alkaloids (€ 521 million) decreased.
- China supplied
roughly 36% of the total value of alkaloids originating in developing
countries, followed by India (25%) and Brazil (19%).
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