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chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt,
zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt
armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble
crystalline salt of ammonia.
chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia (NH3) with
hydrogen chloride (HCl):
NH3 + HCl -> NH4Cl .
chloride is reported to be physically compatible with all
commonly used IV replacement fluids and potassium chloride.
- In nature,
the substance occurs in volcanic regions, forming on volcanic
rocks near fume-releasing vents.
Ammonium chloride is obtained as a by-product in different
chemical processes, particularly from the Solvay process for
production of sodium carbonate from sodium chloride,
ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. Another easily available
raw material is ammonium sulfate.
Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, also known as oronain, is a
byproduct in co-production of soda ash as well as a
quick-acting physiological acidic nitrogen fertilizer
with a normal nitrogen content of 22%~25%.
- By far
the largest share of ammonium chloride made for use as
fertiliser is produced in solvay plants modified for soda
production. After separating the sodium bicarbonate,
ammonium chloride is crystallised out of the remaining
solution by additional process stages, thus obviating
the need for the usual ammonia recovery with its attendant
yield of relatively useless calcium chloride, and
instead ammonium chloride fertiliser is obtained as a
Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant, diuretic
and systemic acidifying agent. It is used in the
treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis, to maintain the
urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some
urinary-tract disorders or in forced acid diuresis.
Ammonium chloride is used in etching in manufacture of
printed circuits, as a fire extinguisher, an explosive
in mineral winning and as a curing agent in
is also sold in blocks at hardware stores for use in
cleaning the tip of a soldering iron and can also be
included in solder as flux.
Ammonium chloride is mainly applied in pharmaceutical,
dry cell, textile, printing and dyeing, fertilizer,
tannage, electroplating, detergent and some other
main global producer is Japan where 220 000 tons
were manufactured in 1993, mainly as a by-product.
Most of it was used as fertilizer in rice
cultivation. Production for this usage is pretty
exclusive for Japan.
production volume of ammonium chloride in Japan was
85,600 tonnes in 2001.
Europe, the same range of production volume as in
Japan is estimated and in the U.S., a production of
10,000 – 50,000 tonnes per year is estimated.
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