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Anise, Pimpinella anisum
L., a herbaceous annual native to the Mediterranean region and Egypt, is
cultivated in Europe, Asia India, Mexico, North Africa, and the USSR.
The plant reaches a height of about 0.5 meters and requires a warm and
long frost-free growing season of 120 days.
Anise develops best in
deep, friable soils and appears to respond favorably to nitrogen
fertilization by yielding a greater quantity of high-quality fruit
(4.3-158). The small white flowers bloom in midsummer, and seed
maturation usually occurs one month after pollination, when the oil
content in the dried fruit is about 2.5%.
The climatic and
soil conditions of the central and eastern states offer some
possibilities for anise production, but rainy weather at harvest
may reduce the yield and quality. Some irrigated sections in California
and elsewhere in the West may be adequate for this crop if the
temperatures are not too high during the growing and maturing season.
The plant also has possibilities as a winter crop in the irrigated
valleys of the southwestern states, where it must be planted in late
September or early October.
of Anise Oil
Anise oil is a colorless
to pale yellow oil with a intense sweet and clean odor, truly reminiscnt
of the chrushed fruits.
The extraction of
essential oils from plant material can be achieved by: Expression,
Hydro- or water-distillation, Water and steam distillation, Steam
distillation, Solvent extraction.
For each method there may
be many variations and refinements and the extraction may be conducted
under reduced pressure (vacuum), ambient pressure or excess pressure.
The choice of extraction method will depend on the nature of the
material, the stability of the chemical components and the specification
of the targeted product.
Anise is used for
bloating, wind, colic and heartburn, digestive, restoring equilibrium,
stress and irritation, tight chest, bronchitis, breath sweetening,
Europeans use Anise in
cakes, cookies, and sweet breads. In the Middle East and India, it is
used in soups and stews. Its licorice-like flavor is popular in candies
and Anise oil is used in liqueurs.
has been exported to 23 countries. The annual export turnover was about
US$1.8 million, except in 1998 there was a big drop. In the year 2000, a
record level was obtained at US$ 6.7 million.
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