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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Arecanut is Also known as Betel nut.
  • Coconut and arecanut are the two major commercial palms of India. These two palms are highly heterozygous and exclusively seed propagated with a long juvenile phase.
  • Areca nut (Areca catechu) is popularly known in India as Supari and Shrivardhani.
  • The areca nut is a shade loving plant.
  • Areca nut is considered to be a native of Malaya. This is extensively grown in North Eastern part as well as peninsular Indian region.
  • Arecanut is consumed both as a raw/ripe nut (adaka or kacha tamul), as dried ripe nut (chali supari) and as semi-mature, cut and processed varieties `Bateldike’ or `Kalipak’ and also is an essential ingredient of ‘gutka’.

Cultivation

  • Areca palm is an unbranched, erect , medium sized monoecious tree growing in hot and humid tropical regions of the world.
  • Betel nut Chewing is cultivation is concentrated in the southwestern and northeastern regions of India and it is extensively cultivated in the states of Karnataka, Kerala, Assam and West Bengal.
  • Areca thrives well in a variety of soils, the laterite soils of the West Coast, the red loamy soils of the Mettupalayam (Tamil Nadu), the alluvial soils of Assam and West Bengal and the loam of Orissa.

Extraction Process

  • The husk of arecanut  extracted by soaking in water for 3 weeks and beating with a mallet can be used for thick boards, fluffy cushions and non-woven fabrics.
  • The Arecanut leaf stalk are first cleaned well and then dried in sun. They are then soaked in a big tank full of water and dried in shade to get desired products of arecanut.
  • Extraction of arecoline was done by the general titration method.

Application

  • The husk of arecanut constitutes 60-80% of the total weight of fresh nut. Several processes have been developed for utilization of areca husk for making hard boards, plastic boards and brown wrapping paper.
  • Arecanut stem is a useful building material. Its timber can be used for making a variety of elegant utility articles like rulers, shelves and waste-paper baskets, due to its hardness.

Technology

  • A Farming technique involves manure production from go-mutra (cow urine), cow dung and arecanut leaves.
  • The Khasi cure the areca nut in the flowing water. The technique might have been developed by the trial and error method. In olden day a tribal family used to store the areca nuts in earthen pots of water for maintaining their moisture and freshness.
  • A molecular techniques have been found to be useful for detailed analysis of genetic variability within and between arecanut and other species.

Market

  • Market analysts say the fall in the production of arecanut during the year and clearance of old stocks in some of the major markets created demand for the new stocks of white arecanut.
  • All arecanut traders at a complex would be given shops in a committee yard, they said and added that the traders at yard who would like to take up arecanut business would be permitted to do it.
  • There is a market where local arecanut sellers sell their product to authorised arecanut merchants. Buyers and sellers execute trade transactions by auction.
  • Over 53,000 tonnes of arecanut, valued at Rs 72.28 crore, were imported during a period with Indonesia contributing 74.26 per cent of the total shipments into the country.

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