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Information @ a Glance

General
  • Bamboo is a member of the bambusoideae, a subfamily of the grasses. For centuries bamboo has been used in fishing, papermaking, landscape gardening, handicrafts, fine arts, food, fodder, building, weapons and hundreds of other things. Some cultures are based on bamboo; the shoots provide a large portion of their food and the culms are used for building housing and for making products that are sold as their only form of income.
  •  Bamboo has long been used in handicrafts and as the raw material for thousands of objects used in daily life and in the pursuit of a livelihood.The pulp of bamboo is well suited to making fine papers of many varieties and adaptations.In India bamboo pulp is blended with shorter weaker pulps for making wrappings and fine papers. High-grade bamboo pulp can be, and is, used in its pure state for making coated and uncoated book and magazine papers. The high length to diameter ratio of bamboo pulps gives it a special versatility in the paper making process.

Manufacturing Process

  • Bamboo is botanically classified as a grass and for pulping purposes it is regarded as an annual plant. Bamboo pulp is very similar to softwood in terms of fiber length and strength. Hence, bamboo can be pulped together with hardwood. Mixed cooking provides stronger pulp than hardwood pulped separately and later mixed with bamboo. Bamboo can also be cooked with acacia.
  • Bamboo Paper has a distinct brush-pen effect thet makes it popular amongst calligraphers. Bamboo Pulp(up to 80%) is regularly used in conjunction with timber pulp to produce newsprint and other standard paper types. Bamboo Pulp can also be used to produce rayon. One ton of traditional Indian handmade paper, produced from cotton rag waste, saves an estimated 277 Eucalyptus or 462 bamboo trees that would be required to make the same quantity of conventional mill made paper.

Application & Technology

  • Bamboo fibre spins nicely. This fiber is a natural cellulose fiber, can achieve natural degradation in the soil, and it won't cause any pollution to the environment. Bamboo can be spun purely or blended with other materials such as cotton, hemp, silk, Lyocell(Tencel)), Modal, cotton chemical fiber and so no. After hi-tech disposal, bamboo fibre is thinner than hair. It has a round and smooth surface. Thus it has no stimulation against human skin. Bamboos usually grow mixed with other species and they form the understorey in high forests.

  • CPPRI has developed the world’s first successful desilication technology for removal of silica from black liquor. The technology has been successfully tested in mills using bamboo and agro residues in India as well as overseas. The technology can help in overcoming the major bottleneck in adoption of chemical recovery system by agro based mills.

Market & Report

  • Bamboo and rattan constitute important species occurring widely in the Indian forests. India is very rich in bamboo diversity. There are 124 indigenous and exotic species, under 23 genera, found naturally and/or under cultivation. Clump forming bamboo constitute over 67% of the total growing stock, of which Dendrocalamus strictus is 45%, Bambusa bambos 13%, D. hamiltonii 7%, B. tulda 5% and B. pallida 4%.

  •  All other species put together are 6%. Melocanna baccifera, a non-clump forming bamboo, accounts for 20% of the growing stock and is found in the north-eastern states. Bamboo falls into two main categories according to growth pattern, (i) sympodial or clump forming, and (ii) monopodial or non-clump forming, runner bamboo.

  • Agro-residue based mills use rice straw, wheat, sarkanda grass (Saccharum spontaneous), bagasse, jute/rags. The use of agricultural residue has grown  due to the dwindling bamboo resources and partly due to the government’s industrial policy encouraging investments in agro-based paper production.

  • However, seasonal availability, transportation costs, and investments in pollution control equipment are seen as limiting factors. Wastepaper-based mills use imported and indigenous wastepaper, corrugated waste paper, kraft paper, and waste cuttings. The recovery of wastepaper has increased from 65 000 tonnes  to 850 000 tonnes . However, the 20% rate of recovery is still one of the lowest, internationally

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