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- Beta-carotene is
an organic compound and a terpenoid. As a carotene with β-rings at both
ends, it is the most common form of carotene. It is a form of Vitamin A
Being highly conjugated, it is deeply colored, and as a hydrocarbon
lacking fuctional groups, it is very lipophilic.
- The structure was
deduced by Karrer et al. In nature, β-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A
via the action of β-carotene dioxygenase. β-carotene is also the substance
in carrots that colours them orange. β-Carotenoid is biosynthesized from
sample size of feed used on the solubility of palm carotenoids were
The extraction of carotenoids from
crude palm oil was carried out in a dynamic (flowthrough) supercritical
fluid extraction system. The carotenoids obtained were quantified using
off-line UV-visible spectrophotometry. The effects of operating pressure
and temperature, flow rate of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO
results showed that the extraction of carotenoids was governed by its
solubility in the SC-CO2 and can be enhanced by increasing pressure at a
constant temperature or decreasing temperature at a constant pressure.
Increasing the flow rate and decreasing the sample size can reduce the
extraction time but do not enhance the solubility.
Without exception, the C40-carotenoids produced today by
industrial synthesis have symmetrical structures, i.e., they have
identical end-groups. The most efficient method for building up these
symmetrical structures is the double Wittig condensation of a symmetrical
C10-dialdehyde 9 as the central C10-building block with two
equivalents of an appropriate C15-phosphonium salt 10.
- Applications for
beta-carotene include margarines, beverages, cakes, soups, milk-based
products, desserts, candies, salad dressings, pastas and others.
- The current worldwide
market value of all commercially-used carotenoids is estimated at $887
million and expected to rise at an average annual growth rate
(AAGR) of 2.9% to just over $1 billion.
- The market value of
beta-carotene was estimated at $242 million. Increasing competition from
Asia has resulted in price pressure that will result in a very moderate
2.9% AAGR. Food still is the most important outlet, where it is widely
used as a color.
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