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- Betaine is a nutrient
that plays an important role in the health of the cardiovascular system.
Studies have suggested that betaine, along with other nutrients, helps to
reduce potentially toxic levels of homocysteine (Hcy), a naturally
occurring amino acid that can be harmful to blood vessels thereby
contributing to the development of heart disease, stroke, and peripheral
vascular disease (reduced blood flow to the legs and feet).
- Betaine functions
closely with other nutrients -- namely, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), folic
acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 -- to break down Hcy and reduce toxic levels
of this substance in the bloodstream. When betaine, or any of these
related nutrients, becomes low in the body, Hcy levels may rise. Some
people have a genetic condition called "homocystinuria," in which Hcy
levels accumulate in the body. Betaine supplements are used to lower
levels of Hcy in people with this inherited health condition.
The growth tests and the
accumulation of glycine betaine by the ALS-96 strain suggested that the
mutant was impaired in the enzyme involved in the production of DMG from
glycine betaine. This was confirmed by measuring GBT activity, determined
by quantifying the production of methionine from glycine betaine and
The first objective of this study
was to examine the effects of choline, betaine, and an equimolar mixture
of both compounds on hyphal extension and spore germination of F.
graminearum over a larger range of concentrations using a protocol
that would limit a concentration gradient. The second objective was to
determine the effects of extracts of different floral structures from nine
wheat genotypes with varying resistance reactions to F. graminearum
on hyphal growth.
The present invention is
directed to food or nutritional products containing betaine. Also
disclosed are methods for lowering the activity of water (Aω)
and retarding microbial spoilage in an intermediate food or nutritional
product, comprising including betaine and a humectant in said food or
Glycine betaine is a compatible
solute, which is able to restore and maintain osmotic balance of living
cells. It is synthesized and accumulated in response to abiotic stress.
Betaine acts also as a methyl group donor and has a number of important
applications including its use as a feed additive. The known biosynthetic
pathways of betaine are universal and very well characterized.
Glycine betaine , defined as betaine
, is one of the most common osmolytes and is synthesized by number of
bacteria, plants, and algae . Many halophilic microorganisms are capable
of accumulating very high levels of betaine. Concentrations well above 1
mol/kg water have been reported . Also many plants synthesize and
accumulate betaine in response to drought or salinity . In addition,
correlation between cold tolerance and intracellular betaine concentration
has been established.
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