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General
  • Betaine is a nutrient that plays an important role in the health of the cardiovascular system. Studies have suggested that betaine, along with other nutrients, helps to reduce potentially toxic levels of homocysteine (Hcy), a naturally occurring amino acid that can be harmful to blood vessels thereby contributing to the development of heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease (reduced blood flow to the legs and feet).
  • Betaine functions closely with other nutrients -- namely, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 -- to break down Hcy and reduce toxic levels of this substance in the bloodstream. When betaine, or any of these related nutrients, becomes low in the body, Hcy levels may rise. Some people have a genetic condition called "homocystinuria," in which Hcy levels accumulate in the body. Betaine supplements are used to lower levels of Hcy in people with this inherited health condition.

Production

  • The growth tests and the accumulation of glycine betaine by the ALS-96 strain suggested that the mutant was impaired in the enzyme involved in the production of DMG from glycine betaine. This was confirmed by measuring GBT activity, determined by quantifying the production of methionine from glycine betaine and L-homocysteine.

  • The first objective of this study was to examine the effects of choline, betaine, and an equimolar mixture of both compounds on hyphal extension and spore germination of F. graminearum over a larger range of concentrations using a protocol that would limit a concentration gradient. The second objective was to determine the effects of extracts of different floral structures from nine wheat genotypes with varying resistance reactions to F. graminearum on hyphal growth.

Technology

  • The compatible solutes betaine and L-carnitine contribute to increased listerial barotolerance at elevated osmolarity.

  • The present invention is directed to food or nutritional products containing betaine. Also disclosed are methods for lowering the activity of water (Aω) and retarding microbial spoilage in an intermediate food or nutritional product, comprising including betaine and a humectant in said food or nutritional product.

Application

  • Betaine is used to increase the concentration of acids in the stomach.

  • Dietary sources of betaine include beets, broccoli, and spinach. Interestingly, many wines contain betaine, particularly less expensive wines that use beet sugar to increase the alcohol content. Some experts suggest that this may be part of the so-called "French paradox," in which wine drinkers from France tend to have low rates of heart disease despite diets high in fat and cholesterol.

Report

  • Glycine betaine is a compatible solute, which is able to restore and maintain osmotic balance of living cells. It is synthesized and accumulated in response to abiotic stress. Betaine acts also as a methyl group donor and has a number of important applications including its use as a feed additive. The known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are universal and very well characterized.

  • Glycine betaine , defined as betaine , is one of the most common osmolytes and is synthesized by number of bacteria, plants, and algae . Many halophilic microorganisms are capable of accumulating very high levels of betaine. Concentrations well above 1 mol/kg water have been reported . Also many plants synthesize and accumulate betaine in response to drought or salinity . In addition, correlation between cold tolerance and intracellular betaine concentration has been established.

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