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General

  • A Biomarker is a substance used as an indicator of a biologic state. It is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention biomarkers validated by genetic and molecular biology methods can be classified into three types. 1. Type 0 - Natural history markers 2. Type 1 - Drug activity markers and 3. Type II - Surrogate markers.
  • In medicine, a biomarker can be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state (for example, the presence of an antibody may indicate an infection).

Market

  • On the diagnostics front, the global market for biomarkers for ovarian cancer which topped $175 million in 2006, is expected to surpass $328 million by 2010. Markets for stroke, cervical cancer, bladder cancer, and many other biomarkers are experiencing similar growth trends.
  • The global biomarkers market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 28.5 per cent from USD 0.63 billion in 2004 to USD 2.90 billion in 2008. Despite the early stages of market development, leading drug companies are already responding by investing in biomarker discovery programmes

Applications

  • A biomarker can also be used to indicate exposure to various environmental substances in epidemiology and toxicology. In these cases, the biomarker may be the external substance itself (e.g. asbestos particles or NNK from tobacco), or a variant of the external substance processed by the body (a metabolite).
  • The use of biomarkers in BioPharma R&D and diagnostics will enable more precise, predictive and preventive clinical care. Biomarker-enabled R&D is evolving into a new discipline with a strong patient focus

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