- Bread has been
around for centuries. Ironically, it even had a role in the settlement
of Australia as many convicts were deported here for stealing bread.
However, the origins of bread started well before this, nearly 12,000
- Bread is almost
always made of wheat but in the past rye, barley, oats, rice and maize
(often called Indian corn until recently) were used or mixed.
- The first bread was
probably made of coarsely crushed wild grains mixed with water and
shaped into loaves that were laid on heated stones or baked by covering
with hot ash. However, the earliest documentation traces bread to the
Middle East, where Egyptians cultivated grains.
Flour, water, yeast and other ingredients are mixed to
form a dough. Mixing develops the gluten in the flour for optimum gas
retention at later stages of proofing and baking. Mixing incorporates
air into the dough. In some processes, additives included at the mixing
stage reduce or eliminate fermentation time.
. It is also known that xylanases have an anti-staling
action during bread storage but their action is not clear
.Knowledge about the mechanism of
xylanase action in dough and bread is still limited, probably
because pentosans in flour vary between wheat types, as well as the fact
that the specificity of xylanases towards different substrates is
staling is a complex process, and is generally defined as the increase
in the crumb firmness and a parallel loss in product freshness. The most
important change associated with staling of bread is the gradual
increase in the firmness of crumb
In recent years engineering innovations have developed
presses with much greater capacity and improved performance. Associated
with their introduction there has been a move to finer semolina
granulation to accommodate increased mixing speeds and reduced mixing
time, and to improve homogeneity of the extruded dough.
The Rapidojet process that is, the preparation of
dough by means of a high-pressure water jet that has been recently
introduced in Germany, is a real innovation. The process is based on the
fact that the mere combination of water and flour will result in the
immediate formation of gluten strings.
- The UK bread and morning goods market is worth almost
£2.9 billion and is one of the largest sectors in the food industry.
Total volume is approximately 4.4 billion units, the equivalent of over
12 million loaves and packs every single day.
- The larger baking companies produce 80% of bread sold in
the UK. In store bakeries (ISBs) within supermarkets produce about 17%
and high street retail bakers produce the rest.
- China represents a
much faster-growing market for bread due to its relative nascence.
Growth can be seen particularly in urban areas where, due to the
increasing pace of life, many people do not have the luxury of spending
an hour at breakfast.
- Bread and biscuits
constitute the largest segment of consumer foods in India. Their
production is about 3.70 million tons per year.
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