- A brick is a block of
ceramic material used in masonry construction and sized to be layed with
one hand using mortar. The oldest shaped bricks found date back to 7,500
B.C. They have been found in Çayönü, a place located in the upper Tigris
area in south east Anatolia close to Diyarbakir. Other more recent
findings, dated between 7,000 and 6,395 B.C., come from Jericho and
- From archaeological
evidence, the invention of the fired brick (as opposed to the
considerably earlier sun-dried mud brick) is believed to have arisen in
about the third millennium BC in the Middle East. The Romans made use of
fired bricks, and the Roman legions, which operated mobile kilns,
introduced bricks to many parts of the empire. Roman bricks are often
stamped with the mark of the legion that supervised its production.
making is an ancient trade. We read in the Bible of the problems the
Israelites had making mud bricks for Pharaoh. Mud bricks dried in
the sun are still being made in Egypt today, but when we think of
bricks we think of bricks made of clay and fired in an oven to make
them hard. Houses made of brick are the rule in Toronto especially
after the disastrous fires of the nineteenth and early twentieth
- In brick-making
terms, clay covers a range of naturally occurring raw materials
which are used to make a product. The clays vary considerably in
physical properties, colour, hardness etc, and mineralogical
content. They have the ability to be crushed and mixed with water to
form a plastic material which can be moulded into various shapes.
- Production of
lightweight clay bricks and blocks with higher thermal insulation
properties is possible by using combustible additives in appropriate
amounts and particle sizes. It was aimed within the scope of another
research project to establish the technological preconditions for
the manufacture of lightweight bricks and blocks using foamed
polystyrene as poreforming additive. The results are very promising.
- Tunnel kilns
technology are capital intensive and suitable only for higher
production levels. Since a large portion of brick production in
India is done in small and medium operations, tunnel kilns may not
be suitable. On the other hand, VSBK technology (mainly developed
and used for smallscale production in rural China) is probably more
suited for the brick industry in India due to its lower capital
requirements and ability to meet emissions standards.
production of common bricks, which comprised 64% of total output,
fell substantially from 4,659m to only 1,591m. The market for bricks
is developing into a national market, replacing the traditional
series of highly localised markets. At the same time the
individuality of the product has become increasingly important in
competition for sales.
- The total fly ash
generation at TPPs by the turn of the century is estimated at about
90 million tonne. Utilization of fly ash while reducing the
environmental problems is a resource for value added products.
Utilization of fly ash in building materials is of special
importance. Clay-fly ash bricks have advantages of Fuel saving in
the range of 15%-35% (coal consumption) or coal saving upto 3-7
tonne per lakh bricks.
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