Bromine was discovered by Antoine Balard at the salt
marshes of Montpellier in 1826 but was not produced
in quantity until 1860. The French chemist and
physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac suggested the name
bromine due to the characteristic smell of the
- Bromine is the
only liquid nonmetallic element at room temperature and one of five
elements on the period table that are liquid at or close to room
- Bromine occurs
in nature as bromide salts in very diffuse amounts in crystal rock.
Due to leaching, bromide salts have accumulated in sea water (85 ppm),
and may be economically recovered from brine wells and the Dead Sea
(up to 5000 ppm).
- Bromine is
extracted from natural brine deposits in the USA and elsewhere. It
was the first element to be extracted from seawater, but this is no
longer economically viable as seawater contains only 65 parts per
million of bromine.
- In nature
bromine can be found as bromide salts or organic bromine substances.
These substances are produced by several sea organisms. Bromine is
mostly in soluble salts in seawater, salt lakes and brine. Seawater
contains approximately 65 ppm bromine. The bromine concentration
found in brine is much higher, between 2500 and 10,000 ppm.
- Bromine is
used in many areas such as agricultural chemicals, dyestuffs,
chemical intermediates and flame-retardants. Most is used to prepare
1 ,2-di-bromoethane which is used as an anti-knock agent in
- Bromine is
also used in the manufacture of fumigants, brominated
flame-retardants, water purification compounds, dyes, medicines,
sanitizers, inorganic bromides for photography, etc. It is also used
to form intermediates in organic synthesis, where it is preferred to
iodine due to its much lower cost.
of Bromine directly or as its compounds are : In Pharmaceuticals, In
Pesticides, In Dyes and Photography, In Sanitary preparations, Water
disinfection, De sizing of cotton, Hair waving compounds, Absorption
fluids, In some perfumes, Air conditioning, Ore flotation and
drilling fluids, Zinc bromide storage batteries are used as load
leveling devices in electric utilities., In the manufacture of
Purified Terephthalic Acid.
Present Global demand for Bromine is estimated to be around 500,000
tonnes per annum. The annual growth rate in demand is
estimated to be around 3% per year.
market demand is largely determined by the flame-retardant sector.
Bromine based flame retardant demand, in turn, will remain depressed
until growth returns to the polymers used in consumer electronics.
- Israel is the
second largest producer of bromine in the world and the largest
producer of elemental bromine.
Approximately 90% of production was for export, accounting for about
80% of international trade in bromine and bromine compounds to more
than 100 countries
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