Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms needle-shaped
crystals. Its chemical formula is CaC2O4.
Bladder stones or uroliths are a common occurrence in animals,
especially in domestic animals such as dogs and cats.
stones form in the urinary bladder in varying size and numbers secondary
to infection, dietary influences, and genetics.
can form in any part of the urinary tract in dogs and cats, but unlike
in humans, stones of the kidney are less common and do not often cause
significant disease, although they can contribute to pyelonephritis and
chronic renal failure.
Calcium oxalate stones form in an acidic to neutral urine.
types naturally occur, calcium oxalate monohydrate, or whewellite
(CaC2O4·H2O), and calcium oxalate dihydrate, or weddellite
(CaC2O4·2H2O). Their appearance can be rough, smooth, spiculated, or
Calcium oxalate stones form more readily in animals with hypercalcaemia,
which can caused by Addison's disease or certain types of cancer.
Hypercalcaemia results in hypercalciuria, which can also be caused by
Cushing's syndrome or hyperparathyroidism.
crystals of whewellite and weddellite were obtained from urinary
Urinary stone formation is a major example of pathological
effect of uric acid seeds on calcium oxalate formation was studied at pH
4.50 and 37°C using a system providing constant super saturation with
respect to calcium oxalate and saturated in uric acid. In all cases the
only solid-phase forming was identified as calcium oxalate monohydrate
Kinetic analysis of the initial rates were proportional with the
relative super saturation with respect to calcium oxalate monohydrate.
calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth inhibitor has been isolated
from human kidney tissue culture medium by using EAE-cellulose batch
chromatography followed by DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200
crystals were grown in urine, in different gels (by the counter
diffusion method) and by direct pouring of reagent solutions together.
urine the crystals took several days to grow up to 30- 50 mm in size
without any impurities and up to 1 mm in size with addition of calcium
chloride and potassium oxalate.
mechanism and kinetics of growth and dissolution of substances
constituting renal stones is important for understanding the etiology of
urolithiasis and working out the methods of treatment.
Homogeneous nucleation of crystals is known to occur at very high super
saturation and the nucleation probability at a moderate super saturation
is much greater on a particular surface.
Calcium oxalate monohydrate is a basic component of most renal stones.
Hundreds of publications deal with COM formation, but only in two of
them atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied. Today it is impossible
to understand and describe quantitatively the processes occurring on the
crystal surface without using this device.
Entrepreneur who want the information on General,
Process, Functions, Consultants, Patent, Technology, Guides,
Report can Email as to