Essential Oil Extraction                                    General, Process, Functions, Consultants, Patent, Technology, Guides, Report                                                  Primary Information Services                                                        Home. Ordering Information. Contact

Information @ a Glance


  • Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms needle-shaped crystals. Its chemical formula is CaC2O4.

  • Bladder stones or uroliths are a common occurrence in animals, especially in domestic animals such as dogs and cats.

  • The stones form in the urinary bladder in varying size and numbers secondary to infection, dietary influences, and genetics.

  • Stones can form in any part of the urinary tract in dogs and cats, but unlike in humans, stones of the kidney are less common and do not often cause significant disease, although they can contribute to pyelonephritis and chronic renal failure.

  • Calcium oxalate stones form in an acidic to neutral urine.

  • Two types naturally occur, calcium oxalate monohydrate, or whewellite (CaC2O4H2O), and calcium oxalate dihydrate, or weddellite (CaC2O42H2O). Their appearance can be rough, smooth, spiculated, or jackstone.

  • Calcium oxalate stones form more readily in animals with hypercalcaemia, which can caused by Addison's disease or certain types of cancer.

  • Hypercalcaemia results in hypercalciuria, which can also be caused by Cushing's syndrome or hyperparathyroidism.


  • Single crystals of whewellite and weddellite were obtained from urinary calculi.

  • Urinary stone formation is a major example of pathological mineralization.

  • The effect of uric acid seeds on calcium oxalate formation was studied at pH 4.50 and 37C using a system providing constant super saturation with respect to calcium oxalate and saturated in uric acid. In all cases the only solid-phase forming was identified as calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM).

  • Kinetic analysis of the initial rates were proportional with the relative super saturation with respect to calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  • A calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth inhibitor has been isolated from human kidney tissue culture medium by using EAE-cellulose batch chromatography followed by DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200 chromatography.

  • COM crystals were grown in urine, in different gels (by the counter diffusion method) and by direct pouring of reagent solutions together.

  • In urine the crystals took several days to grow up to 30- 50 mm in size without any impurities and up to 1 mm in size with addition of calcium chloride and potassium oxalate.


  • The mechanism and kinetics of growth and dissolution of substances constituting renal stones is important for understanding the etiology of urolithiasis and working out the methods of treatment.

  • Homogeneous nucleation of crystals is known to occur at very high super saturation and the nucleation probability at a moderate super saturation is much greater on a particular surface.

  • Calcium oxalate monohydrate is a basic component of most renal stones. Hundreds of publications deal with COM formation, but only in two of them atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied. Today it is impossible to understand and describe quantitatively the processes occurring on the crystal surface without using this device.

Entrepreneur who want the information on General, Process, Functions, Consultants, Patent, Technology, Guides, Report can Email as to,    


Primary Information Services
 21 Murugappan St, SwamyNagar Ext2, 
Ullagaram, Chennai - 600091, India.
 Phone: 91 44 22421080 
Email : ,
Mobile numbers:9940043898, 9444008898  Fax : 91 44 22423753