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  • Candy, specifically sugar candy, is a confection made from a concentrated solution of sugar in water, to which a variety of flavorings and colorants is added.
  • Candy is a type of confectionary which describes a spectrum of sweet goods and takes on different meanings from one country to the other. Among several definitions, candy is defined as a highly cooked coloured and flavoured sugar mass formed into desired shapes.
    A more or less solid article of confectionery made by boiling sugar or molasses to the desired consistency, and than crystallizing, molding, or working in the required shape. It is often flavored or colored, and sometimes contains fruit, nuts, etc.

Manufacturing Process

  • Candy is made by dissolving sugar in water or milk to form a syrup, which is boiled until it reaches the desired concentration or starts to caramelize. The type of candy depends on the ingredients and how long the mixture is boiled. Candy comes in an endless variety of textures from soft and chewy to hard and brittle.
  • Caramel, toffee, fudge, praline, tablet, gumdrops, jelly beans, rock candy, lollipops, taffy, cotton candy, candy canes, peppermint sticks, peanut brittle, chocolate coated raisins or peanuts, sucking candy and candy bars are just a few examples of the confections that are sold under the generic name "candy."
  • Some candy, like marshmallows and gummy bears, may contain gelatin derived from animal bones, and is thus avoided by vegetarians and vegans. "Kosher gelatin" is also unsuitable for vegetarians and vegans, as it is derived from fish bones. Other substances, such as agar agar, pectin, starch and gum arabic may be used as gelatin replacers, although the texture of final product may differ from the original. Other ingredients commonly found in candy that are not vegetarian or vegan friendly include carmine, which is a dye made from the cochineal, and confectioner's glaze, which may contain wings or other insect parts.


  • Brazil is the third largest world producer of candies and chewing gums, with a market of more than 3 billion dollars. This expressive amount of candy dealt each year involves an even more expressive volume of wastewater. Dyes are usually added in the formulation of such products to increase attractiveness, acceptability and esthetic appearance of the product. Synthetic dyes are usually cheaper and more stable than natural dyes and are then preferred by industry in food formulations. Wastewater of candy industries usually contains high amounts of dyes that are hardly removed by biological wastewater treatment processes. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process, which may be used to mineralize food dyes present in candy industry wastewaters.
  • An Indian government programme has identified candy as the ideal medium for improving the nutritional intake of up to 14 million school children. The initiative aims to provide deprived school children with a lemon-flavoured candy that contains all the necessary vitamins required for healthy development.

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