- The Cashew (Anacardium
occidentale) is a tree in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae.
The plant is native to northeastern Brazil, where it is called by its
Portuguese name Caju (the fruit) or Cajueiro (the tree). It is now
widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew "nuts" and
- It is a small
evergreen tree growing to 10-12 m tall, with a short, often
irregularly-shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery
textured, elliptic to obovate, 4-22 cm long and 2-15 cm broad, with a
smooth margin. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to
26 cm long, each flower small, pale green at first then turning
reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7-15 mm long.
flourishes in the hot, dry tropics around sea level. It has an
extensive root system and deep taproot, and grows well even in sandy
soils with low fertility. The trees now grow wild in some places
outside of their native habitat.
plantations, the trees should be spaced about 10-15 m (35-50 ft)
apart. They require good drainage, friable soils, low elevation (up to
1000 m or 3300 ft), rainfall of about 1000-2000 mm (40-80 in) per
year, and a pronounced dry season of three to four months. Cashew can
tolerate a wide pH range and even salt injury. Many cashew groves are
intercropped with coconut or annual crops. Cashew can be grown from
about 25° South of the equator to 25° North, although not on a
commercial-scale level at the extreme latitudes. Most of the regions
where it is an economically important crop are between 15° South and
of cashewnuts refers to the conversion of raw cashewnuts in shell to
its blanched graded kernel form. The processing units are mainly
concentrated in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa,
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Orissa. Methods includes Drum
roasting, Oil bath roasting, Steam roasting. A general comparison of
the above three methods would show that the oil bath method and steam
roasting systems require more initial investment and higher
maintenance costs: the drum roasting method being the cheapest.
cashew nut is a popular dessert nut, eaten out of hand, with other
mixed nuts and used in baking and confections. Sixty percent of
cashews are consumed as salted nuts. It is also made into cashew
butter and nut milk. The nut is high in protein, oil and also
vitamins, especially thiamin. The nut makeup is 47% fat, 21% protein,
and 22% carbohydrate. Alcohol production is another use of the apple.
It is used to flavor Madeira wine and various other liquors.
cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is used in brake linings of cars
because it absorbs heat efficiently. CNSL is also used in preserving
and waterproofing, and in paints, enamels and lacquers. The CNSL also
has been used to treat scurvy, warts, ringworm, and even for
Brazil and Vietnam are the top exporters of processed cashew nuts
worldwide. India, Brazil and Vietnam import raw cashew nuts,
principally from Africa, in order to supplement domestic raw nut
production. World imports of shelled cashew nuts increased nearly 300
percent in volume terms from the largest global importer of processed
cashew nuts, accounting for an average of 20 percent of world imports. India accounted for 55 percent of
world imports; Netherlands (6 percent), Germany (3 percent), the
United Kingdom (2 percent), Japan (2 percent) and Australia (2
percent). Important emerging market regions include the Middle East
and South Asia.
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