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  • Casting is one of the oldest manufacturing techniques. In comparison with the manufacturing of products in a transformation process, casting offers enormous freedom in terms of shape of the product.
  • In forging, a block of metal is deformed under impact or pressure and reformed to the desired shape. It is used to produce large quantities of identical parts, like in the manufacture of automobiles, and to improve the mechanical properties of the metal being forged, for example in aerospace parts or military equipment


  • In the mid-1990s, investment casting was used to produce superalloy components in complex shapes for aircraft and gas turbine engines. Investment casting is a process for creating near-net precision metal parts. There were, however, certain limitations to using this technology.


  • The global market of investment castings is estimated at US $ 6.5 billion in 2002. The major end use
    sectors automobiles, aerospace, engineering, medical and general industries have shown a positive
    growth thereafter . Globally, primary usage of Investment casting is in pumps and valves. World demand for industrial valves is forecast to increase over 5 % per annum through 2009 (including price increases) to US $
    66 billion.
  • The two major markets for forgings are automotive and aerospace. In 1991, these two markets accounted for about two-thirds of forgings made by the hot impression die process (equal to roughly 75 percent of all forgings). In 1974, these two markets accounted for less than half the total because of the then greater size of industrial, off-road vehicles, railroad and other markets


  • The components manufactured through Investment casting process is widely used in Pumps, valves (butterfly valves, solenoid valves, locomotive turbo charger, automobiles, compressors, defense products, general
    engineering (printing machinery, textile machinery, food processing machinery, mining equipment,
    etc.) and other equipment.
  • The range of products in which the casting and forging products are used is large and varied. Product groups which are most interesting for developing country exporters are cast and/or forged products of iron or steel, products of aluminium, locks and padlocks, (parts of) gas turbines, cylinders for calendering or other rolling machines, parts of machinery, parts of transmission and parts of magnesium.

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