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  • Caesium or cesium is the chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
  • Cesium  is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 C (83 F), which makes it one of only five metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.
  • Caesium is most notably used in atomic clocks. Caesium is the international spelling standardized by the IUPAC, but in North American English, the spelling cesium is more common.
  • Caesium has at least 39 known isotopes, which is more than any other element except francium.


  • An alkali metal, caesium occurs in lepidolite, pollucite (hydrated silicate of aluminium and caesium) and within other sources.
  • One of the world's most significant and rich sources of this metal is at Bernic Lake in Manitoba. The deposits there are estimated to contain 300,000 metric tons of pollucite at an average of 20% caesium.
  • It can be isolated by electrolysis of fused caesium cyanide and in a number of other ways. Exceptionally pure and gas-free caesium can be made by the thermal decomposition of caesium azide.
  • The primary compounds of caesium are caesium chloride and its nitrate.


  • Caesium was used as a propellant in early ion engines. It used a method of ionization to strip the outer electron from the propellant by simple contact with tungsten.
  • Caesium use as a propellant was discontinued when Hughes Research Laboratory conducted a study finding xenon gas as a suitable replacement.
  • Caesium is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds.
  • Radioactive isotopes of caesium are used in the medical field to treat certain types of cancer.


  • Cesium, as the oxide or carbonate, was found to be an efficient promoter of ionization in the flow of hot combustion gases from which electricity is obtained in open-cycle MHD generators.
  • Cesium-based formation fluids, which have a range of densities, have multiple applications in petroleum exploration and are used in drilling mud, for lubrication of drill bits, for maintaining pressure on the oil-bearing strata, and for bringing cuttings to the surface.
  • Cesium also forms photosensitive intermetallic compounds with antimony, gallium, indium, and thorium.
  • Cesium is the most electropositive metal and bonds ionically with a wide variety of anions to form compounds, many of which are hygroscopic.

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