Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antimicrobial originally derived from
the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae.
It was the
first antibiotic to be manufactured synthetically on a large scale.
Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms.
Chloramphenicol can easily pass deeply through purulent material to the
organisms hiding within, through cell membranes to attack parasites living
within, and into organs where other antibiotics cannot go.
the three basic steps used in the majority of methods of analysis for
chloramphenicol are: Preparation of the primary extract of the sample;
Purification of the primary extract; Detection and quantification of
residues of chloramphenicol.
numerous procedures used to purify the primary extract in order to remove
substances interfering with the detection and quantification step. Solid
phase extraction is the most widely used technique for purification in the
analysis of residues of chloramphenicol in food matrices.
Mechanism of Action
Chloramphenicol inhibits protein syntheis in bacteria and to a lesser extent
in eukaryotic cells. The drug readily penetrates bacterial cells, probably
by facilitated diffusion.
Chloramphenicol also can inhibit mitochondrial protein synthesis in
mammalian cells, perhaps because mitochondrial ribosomes resemble bacterial
ribosomes more than they do the 80 S cytoplasmic ribosomes of mammalian
Chloramphenicol exists as white to grayish-white or yellowish-white fine
crystalline powder, needles, or elongated plates, with a melting point of
150.5°C to 151.5°C.
Chloramphenicol is soluble in water, chloroform, and ether, and very soluble
in propylene glycol, 50% acetamide, methanol, ethanol, butanol, ethyl
acetate, and acetone. It is insoluble in benzene, petroleum ether, and
Chloramphenicol is an antimicrobial agent with restricted use, because it
causes blood dyscrasia. It is used to combat serious infections for which
other antibiotics are either ineffective or contraindicated. It can be used
against gram-positive cocci and bacilli and gram-negative aerobic and
currently used in eye ointments to treat superficial ocular infections
involving the conjunctiva or cornea, in topical ointments to treat the
external ear or skin, in various tablets for oral administration, and in
intravenous suspensions to treat internal infections.
Chloramphenicol has been used to treat protozoa infections in animals.
Chloramphenicol is used in both dogs and cats to treat a variety of
bacterial infections, including skin infections, wound infections, bone
infections, infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis,
meningitis), pneumonia, and infections of the intestinal tract (such as
Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) is all set to announce a
chloramphenicol testing protocol, which will be posted on the agency's
Website so as to allow interested parties to follow the new procedure in
their own laboratories. Chloramphenicol as described by the USFDA is a
potent broad-spectrum antibiotic drug used only as therapeutic doses for
treatment of serious infections in humans. The agency is testing for
chloramphenicol using a sensitivity of 0.3 ppb.
Chloramphenicol can produce two distinctive types of bone marrow
suppression. Chloramphenicol interferes with the actions of several
bactericidal drugs, such as penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides.
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