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Information @ a Glance

  • Chromite is found in peridotite and other layered ultramafic intrusive rocks and also found in metamorphic rocks such as serpentinites. Ore deposits of chromite form as early magmatic differentiates. It is commonly associated with olivine, magnetite, serpentine, and corundum. The vast Bushveld igneous complex of South Africa is a large layered mafic to ultramafic igneous body with some layers consisting of 90% chromite making the rare rock type, chromitite.Chromite is also used as a refractory material.
  • Chromite forms in deep ultra-mafic magmas and is one of the first minerals to crystallize. It is because of this fact that chromite is found in some concentrated ore bodies. While the magma is slowly cooling inside the Earth's crust, chromite crsytals are forming and because of their density, fall to the bottom and are concentrated there.

Manufacturing Technology

  • The cleaner process of sodium dichromate production by roasting chromite with lime and leaching with sodium bicarbonate solution under the pressure of carbon dioxide was investigated. The roasting reaction conversion effectiveness attained 82.5% under the conditions CaO/Cr2O3 = 2, 7000C, 3 hours. The amount of residue after leaching decreased as 1/3 of traditional process. The equation concentration of sodium dichromate in leached solution attained 100g/L(Cr6+) under 1.3MPa of carbon dioxide pressure and 500C.
  • The traditional production process of chromates was roasting chromite with sodium carbonate and some additives containing calcium at above 11000C - water leaching - acidification with sulfuric acid. The waste and pollution were serous in the process, as one ton sodium dichromate was produced, about 3-4 tons toxic chromium-containing residue, 10-20m3 toxic chromium-containing waste water, 1.5 ´ 104 m3 waste gas, 0.8 ton toxic chromium-containing sodium sulfite and 0.2 ton toxic chromium-containing aluminum hydroxide were discharged[1], it was high-cost to treat these waste.


  • Chromite grains in thin sections from 11 samples were analyzed to determine their major- and minor-element compositions. Samples were selected that contained chromite as an early liquidus phase. Analyses were made at the University of New Mexicoʼs microbeam facilities using a JEOL JXA 8200 microprobe equipped with a back-scattered electron detector, a thin-window energy dispersive spectrometer, and fi ve wavelength-dispersive spectrometers.
  • The chromite sand shows a higher thermal conductivity. It is used where an additional cooling effect should be reached (cooling or chill effect). The disadvantages are similar to the negative characteristics of zirconium sand, caused by the high bulk density. Due to the angular shape of the grains chromite sand leads to a higher tool wear and a higher demand of binder

Market & Report

  • While Chromite mining in India started  there was no ferro-chrome production in the country till. Hence most of the chromite ore was exported. India exported about 3.84 million tonnes . The current production rate of chromite ore in the country is between 0.7 to 0.9 million tonnes per annum. Later, India attained a production of 90,000 tonnes of FeCr/charge chrome.
  •  Prior to implementation of the OMCAL, and FACOR units, the production of FeCr was only about 20,000 TPA. The situation has changed dramatically due to the commencement of production in the export oriented units. Estimated reserve of chromite ore in the country is about 140 million tones, and about 127 million tones are available in the Sukinda valley of Orissa state.
  • Tata Steel Ltd. and Orissa Mining Corp. Ltd. proposed a joint venture on chromite mining in the Sukinda Valley in Orissa. Orissa Mining held more than 80% of the mining lease in the valley, which totaled 4,700 hectares (ha); Tata Steel held 406 ha. Tata Steel would be responsible for chromite mining, preparing chromite ore and concentrates for export, and production of value-added materials, such as ferrochrome. Tata Steel took over the operation of Orissa Mining’s Sukinda ferrochrome plant and other ferroalloys plants in Orissa

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