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  • Chromium is a mineral that humans require in trace amounts, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal health are not well defined.
  • Chromium also appears to be directly involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
  •  It is a steel-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. It is also odourless, tasteless, and malleable.


  • Chromite ore and soda ash are the principal raw materials in the manufacture of chromium chemicals. These compounds are subjected to a high temperature calcination process to produce sodium chromate.
  • The sodium chromate is then reacted with sulphuric acid to produce sodium dichromate liquor with sodium sulphate as a co-product.The sodium dichromate is used as the derivative to manufacture the whole range of chromium based chemicals.


  • Chromite is used to make molds for the firing of bricks.
  • Chromium salts are used in the tanning of leather.
  • Potassium dichromate is a chemical reagent, used in cleaning laboratory glassware and as a titrating agent. It is also used as a mordant  for dyes in fabric.
  • Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2) is used to manufacture magnetic tape, where its higher coercivity than iron oxide tapes gives better performance.
  • Chromium(III) sulfate (Cr2(SO4)3) is used as a green pigment in paints, in ceramic, varnishes and inks as well as in chrome plating.


  • The global chromium market is in a period of slowgrowth, with world consumption forecast to be worth over US$2 billion by 2004. South Africa is the largest producer, with production around 6 million tonnes (US$800 million) a year.
  • Price of Indian chromium concentrate powder 50% by a chrome trader at a Chinese port has reached USD 610 per ton and domestic price at RMB 103 per ton, concentrate 44% of South Africa origin is USD 390


  • The exposure to chromium among workers such as chromium-exposed are welders, chromate pigment workers, chrome platers, and chromium tanning workers may be associated with cancer at other tissue sites, including leukemia and bone cancer

  • Four groundwater samples taken from the monitoring well in Canyon detected toxic hexavalent chromium at up to four times the drinking water standard and up to eight times the state groundwater quality standard.

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