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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Coal combustion products (CCP's) are the inorganic residues that remain after pulverized coal is burned.
  • CCPs are the residuals from the combustion of coal and include:Fly ash, Bottom ash and boiler slag, Air emission control system residues.
  • Coal combustion products (CCPs) are categorized in four groups, each based on physical and chemical forms derived from coal combustion methods and emission controls.

Process

  • As coal is burned in a power plant or industrial boiler, its noncombustible mineral content (ash) is partitioned into bottom ash (or slag), which remains in the furnace, and fly ash, which rises with flue gases.
  • Flue gas desulfurization is a chemical process to remove sulfur oxides from the flue gas at coal-burning powerplants.
  • Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion.
  • In a pulverized coal power plant, finely crushed coal is fed into a combustion chamber where it ignites. Most of the carbon is burned, the volatiles vaporize and the boiler tubes, filled with water are heated to form steam to drive the turbines. The inorganic noncombustible material forms coal combustion byproducts.

Application

  • CCP's are used, in decreasing tonnage, in cement and concrete, structural fill, road bases, agriculture, and other applications.
  • When CCP's are used, natural resources can last longer and mining costs can be reduced.
  • Alkaline Injection Technology (AIT) involves introducing alkaline coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) into a mine void to impart alkalinity, increases pH, and precipitates metals; thus, improving the quality of acid mine drainage (AMD).

Technology

  • A new combustion technology has been developed for pulverixed coal combustion, in which raw coal is oulverized into fine particles and then fired in thermal power station.
  • Chromium XAFS spectroscopy has been used to determine the relative amounts of Cr(V1) and Cr(Il1) in ash samples obtained from coal combustion.
  • The ash composition was measured by X-ray spectroscopy technique at elevated temperatures

Market

  • U.S. electric utilities produced approximately 122 million tons of CCPs.
  • Coal ash (both bottom ash and fly ash) is being placed at a rate of about 800,000 tons annually in an active strip mine near an electric power plant in West Virginia.
  • Coal is and will remain in the next future a most important primary energy to produce power and steam all over the world.
  • The amount of CCPs produced in European (EU15) power plants totals to 55 million tonnes.

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