- Coal combustion
products (CCP's) are the inorganic residues that remain after pulverized
coal is burned.
- CCPs are the
residuals from the combustion of coal and include:Fly ash, Bottom ash
and boiler slag, Air emission control system residues.
- Coal combustion
products (CCPs) are categorized in four groups, each based on physical
and chemical forms derived from coal combustion methods and emission
- As coal is burned in
a power plant or industrial boiler, its noncombustible mineral content
(ash) is partitioned into bottom ash (or slag), which remains in the
furnace, and fly ash, which rises with flue gases.
- Flue gas
desulfurization is a chemical process to remove sulfur oxides from the
flue gas at coal-burning powerplants.
- Carcinogenic and
mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal
- In a pulverized coal
power plant, finely crushed coal is fed into a combustion chamber where
it ignites. Most of the carbon is burned, the volatiles vaporize and the
boiler tubes, filled with water are heated to form steam to drive the
turbines. The inorganic noncombustible material forms coal combustion
- CCP's are used, in
decreasing tonnage, in cement and concrete, structural fill, road bases,
agriculture, and other applications.
- When CCP's are used,
natural resources can last longer and mining costs can be reduced.
- Alkaline Injection
Technology (AIT) involves introducing alkaline coal combustion
byproducts (CCBs) into a mine void to impart alkalinity, increases pH,
and precipitates metals; thus, improving the quality of acid mine
- A new combustion
technology has been developed for pulverixed coal combustion, in which
raw coal is oulverized into fine particles and then fired in thermal
- Chromium XAFS
spectroscopy has been used to determine the relative amounts of Cr(V1)
and Cr(Il1) in ash samples obtained from coal combustion.
- The ash composition
was measured by X-ray spectroscopy technique at elevated temperatures
- U.S. electric
utilities produced approximately 122 million tons of CCPs.
- Coal ash (both bottom
ash and fly ash) is being placed at a rate of about 800,000 tons
annually in an active strip mine near an electric power plant in West
- Coal is and will
remain in the next future a most important primary energy to produce
power and steam all over the world.
- The amount of CCPs
produced in European (EU15) power plants totals to 55 million tonnes.
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