- Niobium, or columbium
is a chemical element that has the symbol Nb.
- Niobium is a metal
that is gray in appearance and ideal for use with steel to create an
alloy that can be used in a number of products.
- Niobium is a shiny
grey, ductile metal that takes on a bluish tinge when exposed to air at
room temperature for extended periods.
- Columbium (symbol Cb)
was the name originally given to this element, but the International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) officially adopted "niobium"
as the name for element.
- The first step in
preparing niobium metal is to separate its compounds from tantalum in an
- Niobium becomes a
superconductor when lowered to cryogenic temperatures.
- Electropolishing (EP)
has been proven a necessary surface processing method for high-gradient
superconducting niobium cavities.
- A techniques has been
developed for processing niobium via powder metallurgy and some have
applied powder injection molding to niobium-based alloys and superalloys.
- Niobium has begun to
attract attention as a metal that can be used in the creation of
- Niobium is used in
many alloys. An alloy is made by melting and mixing two or more metals.
- Niobium is used in
special steel alloys as well as in welding, nuclear industries,
electronics and optics.
- Niobium is
occasionally used as a precious metal in commemorative coins, often
together with silver or gold.
- Niobium Oxide
capacitors are gaining a presence in the electronics marketplace as a
non-burning solution, practical for many applications.
- Ultra High Vacuum
conditions (UHVCA) technique has been used to produce ultra-pure niobium
films with excellent structural and electrical properties at a
deposition temperature lower than 100oC.
Microwavehiydrothermal technique has been used for the synthesis of Nb-
and Ta- based electroceramics, such as Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 and Bi2SrTa2O9.
technique is used to to assess and optimize the quality of chemical
etching techniques of niobium cavities when baffle is used to direct the
etching fluid along the surfaces of the cavity.
- Columbium, in the
form of ferrocolumbium, is used worldwide mostly as an alloying element
in steels and in superalloys.
- The columbium price
is driven by the availability of columbium mineral feed materials,
recycling being an insignificant source of supply.
- Brazil and Canada are
the major producers of columbium mineral concentrates and converters of
the material to ferrocolumbium.
- Brazilís production
of columbium concentrates, mostly pyrochlore, accounts for more than 85%
of total world production of columbium.
- CBMM accounted for
87.66% of the total of foreign exchange in dollars-FOB generated by
exports of products made from niobium (Nb2O5) in the country.
- Niobium demand has
increased due to a general increase in the use of niobium, high demand
in China and the additional use of niobium as a substitute for other,
higher-priced specialty alloys.
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