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General
  • Gail Borden developed a method to make condensed milk in 1853. He had to work hard to convince the U.S. Patent Office to grant him a patent, but he finally obtained one in 1856.

  • His first attempts to market condensed milk ended in business failure, but finally with financial backing from a wholesale grocer, Jeremiah Milbank, he founded the New York Condensed Milk Company, later renamed Borden Inc., which grew into the largest dairy in the U.S.

Process

  • Sweetened Condensed milk is basically concentrated milk to which sugar has been added. The high sugar concentration in sweetened condensed milk destroys majority of micro - organism. It can be made either from whole milk or skim milk. Normally it contains 8% Fat, 45% Sugar, 20% SNF and 28% Moisture and is packed in 397gm tins or in barrels for industrial use. The manufacturing process consists of the following stages, Standardization, Sugar addition,  Evaporation , Cooling ,Seeding and Crystallization ,Packaging in sterilized cans ,Storage.
  •  sweetened condensed milk, heat treated milk along with sugar is taken to the evaporator, where it gets concentrated. The product is then cooled in such a way that lactose forms very small crystals in the supersaturated solution. After cooling & crystallization the sweetened condensed milk is packed in 397 gm of pre-sterilized cans.

Technology

  • The technology to fortify milk is simple. All the vitamins and minerals that can be added to milk are available in dry powder form. The fat- soluble vitamins are also available in an oily form. Because more than one nutrient is generally added to milk, they are added preferably as a premix, which is a homogenous mixture of the desired amount of fortificants (vitamins and minerals) concentrated in a small amount of the food to be fortified. Premixes ensure the addition of correct amounts and uniform homogenization of the micronutrients in the final  product.

  • Fat-soluble vitamins can be added in dry or oily forms, whereas water-soluble vitamins and minerals are added in dry form directly to liquid milk. Liquid milk is fortified just prior to pasteurization or ultra-heat treatment, and it is essential to ensure a good distribution of the nutrients in milk prior to any heat treatment.  Homogenization is especially crucial when using the oily forms of vitamins.

Market

  • Nearly 46 per cent of the total milk production i.e. 42.5 million tonnes is consumed as liquid milk. 47 per cent  is converted into traditional products like cottage butter, ghee, paneer, khoya, curd, etc. Only 7 per cent of the milk is used in the production of western products like milk powders, processed cheese, processed butter.

  • Canada boasted a total of 1,308 dairy processing plants. This number was reduced considerably to about 300 plants. However, in the same time period, the total volume of milk processed rose by 230 per cent. Canadian milk production has remained relatively stable. A majority of dairy processing plants are located in Quebec and Ontario. A total of 158 industrial milk plants and 133 fluid milk plants were in operation across Canada.


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