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  • Diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in an isometric-hexoctahedral crystal lattice.

  • Its hardness and high dispersion of light make it useful for industrial applications and jewelry.

  • It is the hardest known naturally-occurring mineral.

  • It is possible to treat regular diamonds under a combination of high pressure and high temperature to produce diamonds (known as Type-II diamonds) that are harder than the diamonds used in hardness gauges.

  • Alluvial diamonds is the term used to describe diamonds that have been removed from the primary source (Kimberlite) by natural erosive action over millions of years, and eventually deposited in a new environment such as a river bed, an ocean floor or a shoreline.


  • Diamonds and other precious and semi-precious gemstones are extracted from the earth via three main types on mining. These diamond extraction methods vary depending on how the minerals are deposited within the earth, the stability of the material surrounding the desired mineral, and the peripheral damage done to the surrounding enviroment.

  • The principle methods of extraction for diamonds are Artisanal Mining , Hard Rock Mining ,Marine Mining, Open Pit Mining, Placer Mining.

  • Placer Diamond Mining, also known as "sand bank mining" is used for extracting diamonds and minerals from alluvial, eluvial, and or colluvial secondary deposits.

  • Open-Pit diamond mining or "Open-Cast Mining" is a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by removal from an open pit or burrow. Open pit mines are used when deposits of minerals are found near the surface or along kimberlite pipes.

  • The term "Hard Rock Diamond Mining" refers to various techniques used to mine gems, minerals, and ore bodies by tunneling underground and creating underground "rooms" or "stopes" supported by timber pillars of standing rock.


  • Poly-crystalline diamond (poly-C) is expected to be an excellent packaging material for biomedical and environmental MEMS devices. A poly-C thin film packaging technology has been developed to explore the application of this novel material on post-MEMS encapsulation packaging process.

  • An original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite.

  • Microstructure-mechanical-electronic transport property relationships of a new multifunctional material designated as ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), and to utilize this material in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).


  • The mining of diamonds plays a critical role in the economies of Southern Africa, Russia and, to a lesser degree, in Australia and Canada.

  • Russia has a special place in the world diamond industry as a major rough producer (second largest in terms of value) with a significant cutting and polishing industry, skilled labour and favourable conditions for manufacturing a wide range of high-quality polished diamonds.

  • China’s diamond jewellery market today is worth over $1.75 billion USD at the retail level.

  • China today is in keeping pace with supplying the demand for high quality diamonds due to the exceptional diamond consumer trends that have been developing in China throughout the past decade or so.

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