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  • Dragmacidin D  is a potent inhibitor of serinethreonine protein phosphatases (PP), and preliminary evidence suggests that dragmacidin D is a selective inhibitor of PP1 versus PP2A.3b. The dragmacidins are an emerging class of bis(indole) natural products isolated from deep-water marine organisms.
  • Although there has been a substantial effort to prepare the simple piperazine dragmacidins, little synthetic work has been done in the area of the pyrazinone-containing family members, dragmacidins D, E, and F. These compounds are particularly interesting due to their complex structures and broad range of biological activity. Of the possible biosynthetic scenarios, most probable is that dragmacidins E and F  are derived by cyclization of either dragmacidin D  or a closely related congener
  • Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges. The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.
  • The whole sponge body is designed for efficient filtration of the surrounding seawater (Fig. 2A), which is essential because of the low nutrient availability at the sea floor. Water is pumped into the sponge via many small canals that start at the outer surface of the sponge. The water current into the sponge is generated by specialised flagellated cells, called choanocytes, which are clustered in choanocyte chambers in the interior of the sponge

Application & Technology

  • The indolylboronic acid 104 is obtained after 3-mercuriation of the bromoindole 103, being employed for a double coupling to 2,5-dibromopyrazine giving compound 105 in a formal total synthesis of dragmacidin B, trans-dragmacidin C and cis and trans-dihydrohamacanthins A.211.
  • An enantiodivergent strategy for the total chemical synthesis of both (+)- and (-)-dragmacidin F beginning from a single enantiomer of quinic acid has been developed and successfully implemented. Although unique, the synthetic routes to these antipodes share a number of key features, including novel reductive isomerization reactions, Pd(II)-mediated oxidative carbocyclization reactions, halogen-selective Suzuki couplings, and high-yielding late-stage Neber rearrangements

Market & Report

  • Some marine sponges, for example, are a source of dragmacidins, a recently discovered class of alkaloids that perform a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. Some Students were experimenting with several kinds of sponges in an e ort to discover new dragmacidins and determine their chemical structures.
  • During 1998 research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals included in this review involved investigators from 22 countries. This review attempts to classify 59 peer-reviewed articles on the basis of the reported preclinical pharmacological properties of marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria.

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