Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze (i.e. increase the rates
of) chemical reactions.
all enzymes are proteins. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the
beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts
them into different molecules, the products.
Enzymes are generally globular proteins and range from just 62 amino
acid residues in size, for the monomer of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase,
to over 2,500 residues in the animal fatty acid synthase.
enzyme-controlled reaction depends on substrate molecules fitting into
the active site of the enzyme. Environmental factors which alter the
shape of the active site will therefore alter the rate of the reaction.
These factors include high temperatures, variations in pH and the
presence of inhibitors.
Enzymes are usually very specific as to which reactions they catalyze
and the substrates that are involved in these reactions. Complementary
shape, charge and hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics of enzymes and
substrates are responsible for this specificity. Enzymes can also show
impressive levels of stereospecificity, regioselectivity and
Enzymes have been used in the pulp and paper
industry to soften wood fibres, improve drainage, and present
alternatives to chemical bleaching.
Enzymes are used to treat and modify fibres,
particularly during textile processing and in caring for textiles.
Enzymes are frequently used in laundry
Enzymes may be used to help produce fuels from
renewable sources of biomass. Such enzymes include cellulases, which
convert cellulose fibres from feedstocks like corn into sugars.
enzymes demand will grow 6.9 percent annually through 2010, based on
strong gains in key markets such as animal feed, biocatalysts,
pharmaceuticals and starch processing.
Pharmaceuticals will remain the largest market and one of the fastest
growing. The most rapid growth will occur in animal feed additives, led
United States is the largest market for enzymes, accounting for nearly
40% of the global market. However, China, India, South Korea and Taiwan
might emerge as important markets for increased enzyme demand for food,
beverage and other products. By 2013, the total value of the food and
beverage enzyme market is estimated to reach $320 million.
Entrepreneur who want the informations on General, Process,
Company Profiles, Consultants, Technology, Patent Applications, Market, Suppliers
can Email us to