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Information @ a Glance

Introduction

  • Ether is a class of organic compounds which contain an ether group an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups of general formula ROR'.
  • Ethers can act as Lewis bases.
  • Ethers in general are of very low chemical reactivity.

Manufacturing Process

  • The DME synthesis catalyst precursors were prepared by co-precipitation method.
  • The first aryl trifluoromethylethers were prepared by substituted anisoles.
  • The displacement of chlorine by fluorine was realized with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or with antimony trifluoride in the presence of antimony pentachloride.
  • Some very versatile methodology functionalizing trifluoromethoxy substituted aromatics is based on the synthesis-oriented organometallic chemistry.
  • The metal is introduced into a substrate in general by either one of two favorite methods, the permutational interconversion of halogen against metal or hydrogen against metal and subsequently replaced by an electrophile.

Technology

  • Existing technology produces DME through the dehydration of methanol. The scale of the plant in actual operation, however, is rather small, and scaling-up is an issue to produce DME as a commercial fuel.
  • In addition, the equilibrium conversion of the methanol synthesis reaction is relatively small. On the other hand, because the methanol synthesis equilibrium limitation can be avoided in the direct DME synthesis reaction, a higher conversion rate can be achieved.
  • Pure dry technology uses a solvent similar to the solvent used in the hydrocarbon process but it contains two additional materials in small quantities.
  • One of these materials is a hydrofluoroether (HFE) which is apparently added to accelerate drying and the other is a perfluorocarbon (PFC) which is apparently added to suppress the flash point of the hydrocarbon.
  • Glycol ether technology is based on use of a mixture of substituted aliphatic glycol ethers.

Market

  • In Europe that is likely to be high growth categories, such as men's grooming and sun care, where increasing functional and complex formulations are being launched on the market at a fast growing rate.
  • Europe was once a developing hub for the manufacturer of cellulose esther, that is now starting to change, as the market is being challenged by cheaper, good quality alternatives from Asia.
  • The total European market for glycol ethers and their acetates is about 300 000 tonne year, of which 110 000-120 000 tonne/year is taken by P series (PO-based) and the rest by E series (EO-based) material.
  • Global consumption of MTBE into gasoline will decrease by nearly 8%/year while demand into other applications increases by nearly 5%/year. However, the non-gasoline sector will remain a small percentage of the market.

Report

  • In the nuclear waste application, the objective was to develop lipophilic crown ethers that could be used in solvent extraction processes for the removal of sodium and potassium hydroxide and nitrate, which could then be potentially recycled for use in other processes.
  • There are various reasons for selecting pentaBDE as a pilot substance for testing the set criteria and information requirements.
  • It is an intentionally produced flame retardant used in many type of articles. Due to its wide use and releases to the environment, elevated levels of pentaBDE have been found in environmental and human tissue samples.

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