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                                         Information @ a Glance
General
  • An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied by the production of heat and large changes in pressure upon initiation; this is called the explosion.
  • A low explosive is usually a mixture of a combustible substance and an oxidant that decomposes rapidly (deflagration); unlike most high explosives, which are compounds.
  • High explosives are normally employed in mining, demolition, and military warheads. They undergo detonation at rates of 1,000 to 9,000 meters per second.
  • Plastic explosive is a specialised form of explosive material. It is soft and hand malleable and may have the added benefit of being usable over a wider temperature range than pure explosive.

Process

  • A chemical explosive is a compound or mixture which, upon the application of heat or shock, decomposes or rearranges with extreme rapidity, yielding much gas and heat. Many substances not ordinarily classed as explosives may do one, or even two, of these things.
  • At high temperatures (> 2000°C) a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen can be made to react with great rapidity and yield the gaseous product nitric oxide; yet the mixture is not an explosive since it does not evolve heat, but rather absorbs heat.
  • The explosive train, also called an initiation sequence or firing train, is the sequence of charges that progresses from relatively low levels of energy to initiate the final explosive material or main charge.

Technology

  • To visualize the explosion field and describe the complex physical phenomena of explosion and the data from numerical simulation by multi-material in cell (MMIC), a two-dimensional visualization system(VisC2D) and a three-dimensional visualization system(VisC3D) are presented and the algorithms and the functions of ViSC2D and ViSC3D are also addressed.
  • Nuclear techniques have been proposed for the detection of explosives and contraband for a number of years due to their ability to penetrate shielding and to identify the composition of materials, thus leading to enhanced detection probability and lower false alarm rates.
  • The technique for measuring toxic gases may be developed as a standard test to measure fumes produced by blasting agents or may be used to provide data with which to develop a computer model that will reliably predict the expected fumes production based on chemical composition.

Market

  • Solar Explosives (SEL) has become a dominant player in the domestic industrial explosives market. The company met 25% and 50% of Coal India’s (CIL) bulk and small-diameter-permitted cartridge explosive requirements, respectively in FY07.
  • The demand for explosives is dependant on the growth of mining sector that currently accounts for ~90% of the total explosives consumption in India.
  • African Explosives Zimbabwe Private Limited (AEL Zimbabwe) has decided to become a fully invested company in Zimbabwe, and will be marketing and distributing its products directly to the Zimbabwe market.

Report

  • Improvised explosive devices, also known as IEDs, roadside bombs, and suicide car bombs, have caused over 60% of all American combat casualties in Iraq and 50% of combat casualties in Afghanistan, both killed and wounded.
  • As improved technology allows explosive detection at lower and lower levels, precautions must be put in place to prevent cross contamination and to monitor all aspects of the evidence collection and examination procedures.
  • Within the Explosives Regulations is listed a series of tests that can be used to determine the acceptability of explosives for authorization.

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