Fumaric acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H.
colorless crystalline compound is one of two isomeric unsaturated
dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid wherein the carboxylic
acid groups are cis. It has a fruit-like taste.
salts and esters of fumaric acid are known as fumarates.
Fumaric acid is found in fumitory, bolete mushrooms, lichen, and Iceland
skin naturally produces fumaric acid when exposed to sunlight.
Fumaric acid is a naturally occurring organic acid.
microorganisms produce fumaric acid in small amounts, as it is a key
intermediate in the citrate cycle.
Fumaric acid is currently produced by isomerization of maleic acid,
which is produced from maleic anhydride.
are known for their organic acid-producing capability and have been used
in fermentation processes for fumaric acid production.
field of fumaric acid production by fermentation, there are many aspects
determining the productivity of the fermentation process, such as the
applied microbial strain and its morphology, the use of a neutralizing
agent, and the applied feedstock.
Fumaric acid is used as a flavoring, because it is the sourest tasting
of the organic acids.
Fumaric acid is used to lower the pH. This helps certain anti-microbial
agents such as sodium benzoate and calcium propionate work better.
Fumaric acid itself kills bacteria also.
Fumaric acid breaks the sulfur-to-sulfur bonds in the elastic protein
gluten in bread doughs.
Fumaric acid is used in combination with sodium bicarbonate to create
delayed action leavening agents.
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