- Gallic acid
[3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, C6H2(OH)3COOH] is obtained from nutgalls
and other plants or by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid
- Gallic acid has two
functional groups in the same molecule, hydroxyl groups and a carboxylic
acid group. They can yield numerous esters and salts including digallic
acid which is formed by the reaction of two moles of gallic acid with
- Tannins (tannic acid
or gallotannic acid) are esters of digallic acid.
The manufacturing process itself is
quite simple in fact and most of the units have stabilized their
However, the main raw material, Tara
Powder, is totally imported presently. The main disadvantages are that
Tara Powder is an expensive product having erratic supply therefore
requiring larger inventory.
Although all the plants today are
based on Gallic Acid as the starting material, newer processe are being
tried out to replace the Gallic Acid with synthetic derivatives.
- Gallic acid and its
derivatives are used in making dyes and inks, photographic developers and
has been used as astringents in medically
- Some gallates are used
as antioxidants in foods.
- They are widely used in
tanning leather, dyeing fabrics, manufacturing inks, and in various
medical applications (as astringents and to treat some skin diseases).
Tree nuts, primarily almonds,
pistachios and walnuts, are extremely important agricultural crops in
California where virtually all of the U.S. commercial production is
located, with a large proportion of their value accruing from the export
This market is threatened by
potential food safety and quality concerns arising from potential
contamination by aflatoxins, metabolites produced by various strains of
the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which
can infect not only tree nuts but also other major agricultural crops such
as corn and peanuts.
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