- Compressed Natural Gas
(CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is
considered to be an environmentally "clean" alternative to those fuels.
It is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed by
methane (CH4), in a percantage range of 70% to 98%).
- CNG is basically
produced by pressing natural gas at 3,000 psi pressure. Compressed
Natural Gas (CNG) is usually produced on the fueling station site with a
compressor based system. Natural gas is transported through pipelines to
refueling stations and there compressed at a pressure of 3,000 psi with
the help of specially installed compressors that enables it to be loaded
as gas cylinders for vehicles.
- CNG cylinders can be
made of steel, aluminium, or plastic. Lightweight composite
(fibre-wrapped plastic) cylinders are especially beneficial for
vehicular use because they offer significant weight reductions when
compared with earlier generation steel and aluminium cylinders, which
leads to lower fuel consumption.
- The cylinder is used to
store CNG at a working pressure of 200 bar. It is fitted with a shut-off
valve and a safety burst disc. The cylinders are type approved by the
Chief Controller of Explosives, Government of India.
- Composite cylinders
should actually be called reinforced cylinders. There are two main types
– hoop-wrapped and fully-wrapped, fig 1. The two standards, one for each
category, are probably the least prescriptive of all the drafts from
TC23, because they define performance requirements for such cylinders,
and have been developed to permit a whole range of construction
combinations. For example, metallic and non-metallic liners are
acceptable, as are cylinders with no liner. In all cases, a number of
different fibre reinforcing materials can be used including glass,
carbon and polymeric materials, either alone or in combination.
Cost of winding machines for composite cylinders
is in the region of 200,000 to 300,000 USD
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