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General
  • Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a perennial plant in the family Zingiberaceae - its rhizome is commonly used as a cooking spice throughout the world.
  • Ginger takes its name from the Sanskrit word stringa-vera, which means “with a body like a horn”, as in antlers.
  • Ginger has been important in Chinese medicine for many centuries, and is mentioned in the writings of Confucius.
  • It became so popular in Europe that it was included in every table setting, like salt and pepper. A common article of medieval and Renaissance trade, it was one of the spices used against the plague.

Process

  • Ginger oils and oleoresins are the value added products obtained from the dry rhizomes of Zingeber Officinale by steam distillation and followed by solvent extraction.
  • The volatile part that imparts the characteristic sweet, warm citrus like pleasant smell, is the essential oil and is obtained by steam distillation.
  • Solvent extraction of fresh ginger will yield oleoresins, which will combine the aroma and the parting compound as well as pungent compound-gingerols and shogaols.
  • The alternate process available for the recovery of major flavour compounds is the supercritical CO2 extraction technology

Application

  • Ginger  are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes.
  • They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added as a sweetener; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added.
  • Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent and is often used as a spice in Indian Recipes , Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or mutton & Vegetarian Recipes.
  • Ginger is also made into candy and used as a flavoring for cookies, crackers and cake, and is the main flavor in ginger ale-- a sweet, carbonated, non-alcoholic beverage, as well as the similar, but somewhat spicier beverage ginger beer.

Market

  • India, China, Thailand, Australia, Fiji, Jamaica, Brazil and Nigeria are well-known producers. Most of the world trade in ginger is as a dried spice, however fresh rhizomes are also traded.
  • The other states where ginger is grown are Orissa, West Bengal & Meghalaya.
  • Though grown all over India, the finest quality ginger comes from Kerala endowed as it is with a congenial climate and a rich earthy soil. Indian dry ginger is known in the world market as 'Cochin Ginger' (NUGC) & 'Calicut Ginger' (NUGK).
  • India is the largest producer - but major consumption is within the country & Imports too.
  • China is the largest Exporter, Japan & USA are the biggest Importers .

Report

  • India offers ginger in a variety of forms; oils, oleoresins, fresh ginger in brine, pickles, candies and syrups. It also comes in garbled/ ungarbled, bleached/unbleached and powder forms.
  • Confectionery ginger constitutes less than 3% of the world trade (by volume), it is important as a value-added product and earns a much higher rate of return compared to the fresh or dried rhizomes.
  • Most common are the gingerols, which are largely responsible for the anti-inflammatory, antinauseant and antioxidant effects. There are also components of the spice with antiviral activity and zingibain is a powerful protein-digesting enzyme.

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