- Glass in
the common sense refers to a hard, brittle, transparent, solid,
such as that used for windows, many bottles, or eyewear,
including, but not limited to, soda-lime glass, borosilicate
glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, isinglass or aluminium
- The most
costly and energy-intensive step in glass production is the
melting and refining of raw materials to produce a homogenous,
contaminant-free molten bath that is the basis of all glass
- The most
important fuels for glass-melting furnaces are natural gas,
light and heavy fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas.
manufacturing process requires raw materials, such as sand,
limestone, soda ash, and cullet (scrap and recycled glass), be
fed into a furnace where a temperature is maintained in the
2,700°F to 3,100°F range.
products are used in food and beverage packaging, lighting,
communications, transportation, and building construction.
- The glass
industry looks optimistically towards a bright future.
- The glass
industry has learned that successful technology development
benefits from a coordinated strategy that engages key suppliers,
manufacturers, and customers in accomplishing mutual technology
- The U.S.
glass industry is a world leader in the production of flat,
fiber, container, and specialty glass products.
Ceramics are defined as a class of inorganic, nonmetallic
solids that are subjected to high temperature in manufacture
Ceramic materials are usually ionic or covalent bonded
materials, and can be crystalline or amorphous.
general, most ceramics are: hard, wear-resistant, brittle,
refractory, thermal insulators, electrical insulators,
oxidation resistant, prone to thermal shock, and chemically
basic beneficiation processes include comminution,
purification, sizing, classification, calcining, liquid
dispersion, and granulation.
the growth in the housing sector the demand of ceramic is
expected to increase. Indian tiles are competitive in the
ranks 7th in the world in term of production of ceramic
tiles and produced 200 million sq. meters of ceramic tiles,
out of a global production of 6400 million sq. meters during
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