Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and
condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH.
aqueous solution at neutral pH, gluconic acid forms the gluconate ion.
salts of gluconic acid are known as "gluconates". Gluconic acid and
gluconate salts occur widely in nature because such species arise from
the oxidation of glucose.
Gluconate esters can also be formed, such as quinine gluconate which is
used for intramuscular injection in the treatment of malaria.
Gluconic acid is a polyhydroxycarboxylic acid with six carbon length. It
is derived from glucose by oxidation of the aldehyde group on the C-1 to
a carboxyl group.
aqueous solution, gluconic acid exists in equilibrium with the cyclic
ester Glucono delta lactone.
Gluconic acid is a noncorrosive, nonvolatile, nontoxic, mild organic
acid. It imparts a refreshing sour taste in many food items such as
wine, fruit juices, etc.
gluconate as a high sequestering power.
Aqueous solutions of sodium gluconate are resistant to oxidation and
reduction at high temperatures. It is an efficient plasticizer and a
highly efficient set retarder.
are different approaches available for the production of gluconic acid,
namely, chemical, electrochemical, biochemical and bioelectrochemical.
Commercially the physiological d-form gluconic acid is prepared by
Glucose is generally used as carbon source for microbial production of
Gluconic acid is produced from glucose through a simple dehydrogenation
reaction catalysed by glucose oxidase.
Gluconic acid production is an extremely oxygen- consuming process with
a high oxygen demand for the bioconversion reaction, which is strongly
influenced by the dissolved oxygen concentration.
Production of gluconic acid is directly linked with the glucose oxidase
activity. Depending on the application, the fermentation broths
containing sodium gluconate or calcium gluconate are produced by the
addition of solutions of sodium hydroxide or calcium carbonate
respectively, for neutralisation.
Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid, which finds applications in the
a natural constituent in fruit juices and honey and is used in the
pickling of foods. Its inner ester, glucono-d-lactone imparts an
initially sweet taste which later becomes slightly acidic.
used in meat and dairy products, particularly in baked goods as a
component of leavening agent for preleavened products.
used as a flavouring agent and it also finds application in reducing fat
absorption in doughnuts and cones.
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