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Information @ a Glance        

 General
  • The earliest grape consumers were probably hunter/gatherers who included the wild fruit in their diet along with such savory delicacies as woolly mammoth and wild boar. one of the earliest cultivated fruits on Earth. The grape that became known as vitis vinifera originated in the Black Sea region and spread rapidly southward to the Middle East.
  •  Grapes were being cultivated in Mesopotamia as early as 6,000 BC. From there, the vinifera grape spread eastward to Phoenicia and Egypt. Winemaking was a primary use for grapes from the beginning, but the ancient Greeks were the first civilization to make a serious practice of grape growing and winemaking. The Greeks even had a god of the vine.

Process

  • The vine shoots are fastened and side shoots are cut out before bunch forming .The bunches are pruned to the required length during bunch forming and thinned where necessary. Pre-packaging preparations include the clean cutting of grapes and grading as Class 1 or Class 2.
  • Bunched are packed individually in plastic and then in cartons according to weight. The grapes are cooled to 5ºC after harvesting during the time span of 3 hours. After palletizing it is cooled further to   0.5°C during 18 hours in cold storage.

Technology

  • The researchers have been comparing gene expression in grapes grown under different management regimes and at different times of berry development discovery of all the genes in the grapevine genome; development of a framework for a genetic map of the genome; production of genetic maps based on new DNA marker types; and application of the information for improving vines, grapes and wine.
  •  One gene could make in grapevines (and many other plants), consider the gene that controls gibberellic acid (GA) perception. GA is a plant growth hormone produced in different parts of the plant at different times during development.

Market

  • World production of fresh table grapes in selected countries is unchanged at 11.2 million tons. Next year’s production expectations are for stable world production, again around 11 million tons. Southern hemisphere production declined 2 percent but was offset by slight increases in the northern hemisphere mostly due to a 100,000-ton production increase in China.

  •  This increase is based on more previously-planted acreage now bearing fruit combined with additional grape area planted. Production of Chilean grapes is expected to decline 45,000 tons from the previous year’s abundant crop. Grape acreage has leveled off in Chile and any variation in production is mostly due to changes in variety. Italy’s table  grape crop declined by about 65,000 tons, due to the summer  drought.

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