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  • Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds that contain a ring structure containing atoms in addition to carbon, such as sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen, as part of the ring.
  • Heterocycles with three atoms in the ring are more reactive because of ring strain. Those containing one heteroatom are, in general, stable. Those with two heteroatoms are more likely to occur as reactive intermediates.
  • Many heterocycles have important pharmaceutical properties.
  • Oxiranes (epoxides) are the most commonly encountered three-membered heterocycles.
  • Heterocyclic compounds are of fundamental importance to biological processes and are wide spread as natural products.
  • Preparation of heterocyclic compounds was performed in two steps: condensation and/or alkylation, which were conducted according to two alternative microwave procedures, without solvent or with small amount of polar, ecological friendly solvent e.g. ethanol.
  • Reaction of dimethyl acetylene dicarboxylate (DMAD) with esters and amides of dithiocarboxylic acids are well known methods for preparation of five membered S, and S,Nheterocycles.
  • The application of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis for conducting reactions at highly accelerated rates is an emerging technique,
  • The reaction of N-(2-cyanophenyl)benzimidoyl chloride with reagents containing a thioamide moiety, i.e. thioacetamide, benzylthiourea, symmetrical dialkyl- and diarylthioureas gave different cyclic products: 3,1-benzothiazine, 1,3,5- benzotriazocine and quinazoline.
  • Oxygen heterocyclic compounds play an important role in the characterization of citrus oils controlling both their quality and authenticity.
  • Some heterocyclic amines (HCAs) found in cooked meat are known carcinogens.
  • Synthetically produced heterocycles designed by organic chemists are used for instance as agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals and play an important role in human life.
  • Heterocyclic compounds offer a high degree of structural diversity and have proven to be broadly and economically useful as therapeutic agents.
  • The synthesis of the 3-carbethoxycoumarin heterocycle involves a transesterification followed by an aldol condensation reaction starting with salicylaldehyde and diethyl malonate.
  • Nitro-carbon heterocyclic structures are found in various therapeutic agents, including numerous antihistamines, as well as antiseptic, antiarrythmic, antirheumatic, antibiotic and other pharmaceutical compounds.
  • Hydrogenation of nitrobenzenes bearing aldehyde-containing substituents over heterogeneous platinum or palladium catalysts gives medium and/or large heterocyclic amines as a result of simple or dimeric cyclisation in moderate to good yields; a range of heteroatoms can be incorporated into the macrocycles, enhancing their potential as ligands.

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