Pressure Processing (HPP) is a method of food processing where food
is subjected to elevated pressures (up to 87,000 pounds per square
inch or approximately 6,000 atmospheres), with or without the
addition of heat, to achieve microbial inactivation or to alter the
food attributes in order to achieve consumer-desired qualities.
Pressure inactivates most vegetative bacteria at pressures above
60,000 pounds per square inch. HPP retains food quality, maintains
natural freshness, and extends microbiological shelf life. The
process is also known as high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP)
and ultra high-pressure processing (UHP).
pressure processing is a non thermal processing. High Pressure is
believed to preserve foods by inactivating vegetative cells. High
pressure alone does not appear to kill significant populations of
spores, but it does appear to induce germination. Spores appear to
be inactivated by combinations of both pressure and heat.
a typical HPP process, the product is packaged in a flexible
container (usually a pouch or plastic bottle) and is loaded into a
high pressure chamber filled with a pressure-transmitting
(hydraulic) fluid. The hydraulic fluid (normally water) in the
chamber is pressurized with a pump, and this pressure is transmitted
through the package into the food itself. Pressure is applied for a
specific time, usually 3 to 5 minutes. The processed product is then
removed and stored/distributed in the conventional manner. Because
the pressure is transmitted uniformly (in all directions
simultaneously), food retains its shape, even at extreme pressures.
And because no heat is needed, the sensory characteristics of
the food are retained without compromising microbial safety.
food processing, using pressures between 1 and 10 kbar, permits
preservation of aroma and vitamins, improvement of textural and
sensory properties, and removal of harmful bacteria. The process
must be carefully monitored, however, as localized variations in
pressure or temperature can significantly influence the removal of
bacteria. The process must therefore be uniform, especially in the
health-sensitive field of microbial inactivation.
is a niche technology for providing –70°F to –150°F ultra-cold
temperatures cost effectively and without harmful environmental
emissions to the food processing, volatile organic compound
recovery, and liquid natural gas industries.
can be used to produce new surimi products. In surimi processing,
the sarcoplasmic proteins are removed by thorough washing since they
do not form gels when heated.
pressure thawing is effective in foods having a high water content.
This is because the melting temperature of water is depressed under
pressure from 0° C at atmospheric pressure down to -22° C at 220
MPa. A pressure of 220 MPa is the maximum of interest in thawing
from the heat transfer process.
processing is useful not only for producing high quality food, but
also for improving the manufacturing process. The production time
for rice crackers is shortened by introducing a high-pressure
technique into the traditional processing system and the total
energy cost is decreased by 10% and the labor force by 56%.
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