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- Indium is a
chemical element with chemical symbol In and atomic number 49.
- This rare, soft,
malleable and easily fusible poor metal is chemically similar to
aluminium or gallium but more closely resembles zinc .
- Its current primary
application is to form transparent electrodes from indium tin oxide in
liquid crystal displays.
- It is widely used in
thin-films to form lubricated layers. It's also used for making
particularly low melting point alloys, and is a component in some
- The major
application of indium is in automobile bearings to improve moisture
resistance and antiseizure properties. It is also used in the
- In this application,
indium acts as a doping agent in the formation of p-type
germanium.Indium is also used in plating applications due to its
electrolytic properties, and in the production of electroluminescent
panels, as an oxide.
- Pure indium is used
as a material for nuclear reactors due to it neutron-capture capacity -
as well as indium oxide as a glass material for nuclear technique: -(33%
of boron oxide, 55% cadmium oxide and 12% indium oxide).
- Indium added alloys
are used as dental alloys, but no evidence of their embryotoxicity risk
has been reported.
- Indium is now
recovered as a by-product of a wider range of base metals including tin,
copper and other polymetallic deposits.
- Indium is also now
being extracted and recovered from base metal concentrates containing as
little as 100 ppm of indium.
- Base metal smelters
are improving the extraction process of indium from concentrates.
Concentrates with lower indium contents are more commonly
- The indium
concentration both in aqueous and in the organic (TMB) phases was
determined by complexometric titration (EDTA) using the xylenol orange
as indicator in an acetate buffered solution at pH = 3.81 at ∼
- At the end of 2002
prices were at as low as US$70/kg despite steadily increasing demand,
largely due to more than adequate supplies of low-priced material from
- Prices are expected
to continue to rise through 2004 to reach US$250-300/kg, an increase
which is likely to encourage more widespread recovery of indium from
secondary materials and widen the supply base.
- Roskill Information
Services Ltd., supply potential also increased as producers increased
recovery rates of indium from smelter flue dusts and residues at
lead-zinc metallurgical plants to take advantage of higher
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