- Iodine is a chemical element in the
periodic table that has the symbol I and atomic number 53. Chemically,
iodine is the least reactive of the halogens, and the most
electropositive halogen after astatine.
- Iodine is a dark-gray/purple-black
solid that sublimes at standard temperatures into a purple-pink gas
that has an irritating odor. This halogen forms compounds with many
elements, but is less active than the other members of its Group VII
(halogens) and has some metallic-like properties. Iodine dissolves
easily in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulphide to
form purple solutions (It is only slightly soluble in water, giving a
yellow solution). The deep blue color of starch-iodine complexes is
produced only by the free element.
- Iodine is produced through a
"blow-out" process. This is the process where one of the
characteristics of iodine, that is, to easily evaporate is made use
of. Iodine contained in brine in the form of iodine compound ions (I-)
is limited, more or less 100ppm and the process is suited for the
extraction of iodine from such low content solution. Sand and other
impurities are first removed from brine by sedimentation and an
oxidant is added to it to extricate iodine (I2) and then
air is introduced to "blow it out". After that, iodine is
extracted, crystallized and purified.
- The goal of an iodine-based teat dip
is to elevate the level of "free" iodine for maximum
germ-killing speed and power, while improving its stability within the
formulation. I-tech™ is a technological breakthrough
offering dairy producers superior mastitis control. It provides more
"free", thus greater killing power. Tests have proven that
teat dips with I-tech can kill more germs in 15 seconds or less than
conventional iodine teat dips kill in a minute or more.
- One of the oldest and largest uses
for iodine is in the disinfectant area. An almost universally known
product is "tincture of iodine" for household disinfectant
use. Certain iodides have found use in the catalyst system for
producing stereospecific polymers such as polybutadiene rubber. Also
the dehydrogenation of butane and butylene to butadiene has been shown
to be catalyzed by iodine that is also useful in polymer production.
- Other applications of iodine are as
food supplements, X-ray contrast media, radioactive tracers,
photographic processing chemicals, constituent of cutting fluids use
in heavy machinery. The element is also used in metallurgy with
titanium, silicon, zirconium and hafnium.
is currently being used for the treatment of and diagnosis of various
diseases related to the thyroid such as hyperthyroidism and thyroid
cancer, and has latterly come to prominence as a source of radiation
in a new radiopharmaceutical for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
- The total US market for therapeutic
radioactive iodine products is estimated to range between $14 and
$18 million, but could be heading for growth as a new generation of
radiopharmaceuticals for cancer reach the market.
- The demand for salt increases with
growth of population as well as with the development of industries.
Apart from human consumption, chemical industry is a large bulk
consumer of salt for chlor alkali manufacture. In the developed
countries, industrial requirements are several times the edible
consumption. In the USA for instance nearly 97% of the total
production of approximately 40 million tons is used for non-edible
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