is a lustrous, silvery soft metal. It is one of the few ferromagnetic
and iron alloys are also the most common source of ferromagnetic
materials in everyday use.
is believed to be the sixth most abundant element in the universe,
formed as the final act of nucleosynthesis by carbon burning in massive
is an alloy consisting mostly of iron, with a carbon content between 0.2
and 2.04% by weight, depending on grade.
common ores of iron are both iron oxides, and these can be reduced to
iron by heating them with carbon in the form of coke. Coke is produced
by heating coal in the absence of air.
is manufactured by the chemical reduction of iron ore, using an
integrated steel manufacturing process or a direct reduction process.
conventional integrated steel manufacturing process, the iron from the
blast furnace is converted to steel in a basic oxygen furnace (BOF).
can also be made in an electric arc furnace (EAF) from scrap steel and,
in some cases, from direct reduced iron.
typically used for high-tonnage production of carbon steels, while the
EAF is used to produce carbon steels and lowtonnage specialty steels. An
emerging technology, direct steel manufacturing, produces steel directly
from iron ore.
smelting and refining process for iron and steel in the BF-BOF process
involves the carbon reduction of iron ore (Fe2O3) in the BF to make
molten iron, and decarburization of molten iron in the BOF to make
addition to the BF-BOF process, there is another process which utilizes
mainly scrap as an iron source, with some direct reduced iron whenever
necessary. The direct reduced iron is produced by reducing iron ore with
reformed natural gas, whose principal components are hydrogen, carbon
monoxide, and methane.
Advanced iron and steel technologies have seen substantial development
over the past decade and are regularly incorporated into new designs and
redesigns by all automakers.
steel industry and component suppliers are investing heavily in
Lightweight steel techniques have an ongoing potential to achieve
multiple design objectives, including mass reduction for fuel economy
improvement, safety improvements for both crashworthiness and
compatibility, and otherenhancements in vehicle performance and
India's ministry of mines has come out in support of iron ore producers
who have criticised the ministry of finance's recent move to increase
export duty on iron ore.
ore production capacity and demand are expected to increase at high
rates over the next couple of years, with a variety of factors likely to
influence the demand/supply balance, UNCTAD said.
is one of the major players in the international steel market. It was
Europe’s fifth largest and the world’s 11th biggest steel producer with
an estimated total production of 26 million tons, commanding 2 percent
of global output.
HIsmelt is a direct iron making technology developed with the support of
the Australian Government by a Rio Tinto led joint venture. HIsmelt
steel is made by injecting iron ore fines and noncoking coal directly
into a molten metal bath to create high quality pig iron.
technology is potentially of great benefit to India as quality iron can
be made using low priced, low quality metallurgical coal. HIsmelt uses
much of the same equipment as a blast furnace so existing facilities can
be easily upgraded.
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