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General
  • Lava is molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption.
  • A lava flow is a (moving) outpouring of lava, which is created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock.
  • The composition of a lava determines its behavior more than the temperature of its eruption.
  • The viscosity of lava is important because it determines how the lava will behave.

Origin

  • Island-arc magmas are generated in metosomatically altered mantle. This is comfirmed by findings in lavas of ultramafic inclusions with chromian magnesian amphibole.
  • Hawaiian lavas show a much wider spread that partially overlaps the partial melts of garnet pyroxenite, and extends toward the melts generated from carbonated lherzolite at 3.0GPa
  • The origin of granites and the possibility of generating them by direct fractional crystallization of mantle derived magma have been the subject of numerous debates for a long time.

Minerals

  • Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence that makes up part of the Eocene Siletz River Volcanics.
  • Xenoliths of igneous material, generally ultrabasic, are abundant in some lava flows.
  • The chemical composition of analcite extracted from mafic phonolite lavas of the Highwood Province of Montana.
  • Chloritoid occurs as a hydrothermal alteration mineral in pre-Cambrian lavas.
  • Minor prehnite, albite and quartz appear in some lavas.

Minerals Extraction

  • Extrusive igneous rock forms above-ground. Extrusive igneous rock can form from lava and pyroclastic debris, particles from lava that exploded into the atmosphere.
  • The simplest process, and the one that an igneous petrologist would always check out first, is Fractional Crystallization.
  • Predominant rock types are basic lava flows characterized by high K content which classify as high-K calcalkaline basalts and basaltic andesites with shoshonitic affinity.
  • Viscous lava is silica-rich and tends to form a mound-like dome on top of the volcano.

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