a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals,
primarily cattlehide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into
a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses.
leather industry and the fur industry are distinct industries that are
differentiated by the importance of their raw materials.
leather industry the raw materials are by-products of the meat industry,
with the meat having higher value than the skin.
a number of processes whereby the skin of an animal can be formed into a
supple, strong material.
of leather are vegetable tanned leather, chrome- tanned leather, Aldehyde-tanned
leather, Synthetic-tanned leather, Alum-tanned leather, and rawhide.
Leather Production Process
leather manufacturing process is divided into 3 fundamental sub-processes:
preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo
these sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating can be added
into the leather process sequence but not all leathers receive surface
like proteases, lipases and amylases have an important role in the soaking,
dehairing, degreasing, and bating operations of leather manufacturing.
institute has developed a three step tanning methodology towards near zero
discharge leather processing. Cow hides are dehaired using standard enzyme
based dehairing method.
salt is traditionally used for curing preservation of hides and skins which
is the major pollutant in the tanneries.
methods have been developed that use less amount of salt in admixture with
certain biocides and thus restrict the growth of bacteria biocides and thus
restrict the growth bacteria to considerable extent.
Market and Report
leather exports grew moderately, from US$ 46 billion to US$ 61 billion.
World leather exports can be categorised in to raw hides and skins (40%),
leather articles (49%) and furskins (11%).
Hong Kong, Italy, USA and France are major exporters of leather in the
Composition of Indian leather exports has undergone a radical change, from
being a mere exporter of raw hides and skins, to a status of an exporter of
value added leather products.
been exporting only finished leather because of export restriction on
semifinished leather. Total leather and leather manufactures exports stood
at Rs.10,286 crores. Leather footwear is the largest component of leather
exports, with a share of 26%.
major export markets for leather handbags are USA, Germany, UK and Spain. In
UK and Spain, Italy is the top exporting country of leather handbags.
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