Levulinic acid, or 4-oxopentanoic acid, is a white crystalline keto acid
prepared from levulose, inulin, starch, etc., by boiling them with
dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acids.
soluble in water, ethanol, and diethyl ether, but essentially insoluble
in aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Levulinic acid is used in the manufacture of nylons, synthetic rubbers,
plastics, and pharmaceuticals.
a precursor in the industrial production of other chemical commodities
such as methyltetrahydrofuran, valerolactone, and ethyl levulinate.
Levulinic acid is used in cigarettes to increase nicotine delivery in
smoke and binding of nicotine to neural receptors.
Levulinic acid (LA), accessible by the acid-catalysed degradation of
biomass, is potentially a very versatile building-block for the
synthesis of various (bulk) chemicals for applications like fuel
additives, polymer and resin precursors.
biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes
and equipment to produce fuels, power and chemicals from biomass.
kinetic expressions were used to gain insights into the optimum process
condition for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in
Levulinic acid is a kind of new green platform chemical with wide
application. The kinetics of levulinic acid formation from glucose
decomposition at high temperature.
levulinic acid was degraded by several techniques.
novel method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry
(LC–MS) was developed for the determination of levulinic acid (LV) in
Levulinic acid can be produced from cellulosic biomass through thermo
Currently, levulinic acid has a worldwide market of about one million
pounds per year at a price of $4–6 per pound.
Large-scale commercialization of the Biofine process could produce
levulinic acid for as little as $0.32 per pound, spurring increased
demand for LA and its derivatives.
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