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Information @ a Glance

General
  • Lime” is a general term referring to burned or calcined limestone (burnt lime or quicklime) and its secondary products, including slaked lime and hydrated lime (or calcium hydroxide). In the calcining process, quicklime (CaO or CaO.MgO) begins to form when the dissociation temperature of the limestone occurs. (This occurs from 402°C for the magnesium carbonate component to 898°C for the calcium carbonate portion.) Temperatures are maintained sufficiently long until there is a complete breakdown of the limestone and a release of the carbon dioxide content.
  • Lime is the high-temperature product of the calcination of limestone. Although limestone deposits are found in every state, only a small portion is pure enough for industrial lime manufacturing. To be classified as limestone, the rock must contain at least 50 percent calcium carbonate. When the rock contains 30 to 45 percent magnesium carbonate, it is referred to as dolomite, or dolomitic limestone. Lime can also be produced from aragonite, chalk, coral, marble, and sea shells. The Standard Industry Classification (SIC) code for lime manufacturing is 3274. The six-digit Source Classification Code (SCC) for lime manufacturing is 3-05-016.

Lime Kilns

  • There are an estimated 6,000 operational lime kilns in India. Most of the kilns exist in clusters near limestone deposits. The major clusters are spread across the western region (Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra), northern region (Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh), southern region (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), central region (Madhya Pradesh), and eastern region (Jharkhand, Meghalaya). 

  • Rotary kiln will achieve a daily production of some 600 to 2,000 tonnes. The heat consumption of a rotary kiln is markedly higher than that of vertical shaft kilns. This "disadvantage" is frequently compensated for by the flexibility with which the kiln can be operated. 

Technology

  • The most prominent technology is the process that uses an aqueous slurry of lime, Ca(OH)2, or limestone, CaCO3, for control of SO2. The systems of the 1970s and early 1980s typically operated at 90 percent SO2 capture at a calcium/absorbed sulfur molar ratio of about 1.1 Ca/S. While most of these scrubbers did produce the desired result, uncontrolled, natural oxidation of the sulfite species produced a slurry containing a mixture of CaSO3·1/2H2O platelets and blocky crystals of CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum) that was difficult to dewater. 

  • The process hinges around the use of limestone precipitate as a neutralisation agent The use of limestone to treat acid effluent offers the mines a financially attractive alternative to lime dosing technology The CSIR s limestone process offers a substantial cost saving and performs exactly the same function.

Market Reports

  • Industrial markets for lime mainly include the pulp and paper industry, the mining industry, chemicals manufacturing, and environmental control. The pulp and paper industry is one of the major consumers of lime, mainly for the preparation of digesting liquor for manufacturing kraft or sulphate paper, and for pulp bleaching during a primary stage of production. Most of the input lime is recovered by calcining dewatered calcium carbonate sludges; however, an important volume of lime is required as “make-up.” The increasing use of precipitated calcium carbonate in coated and uncoated printing and writing papers in North America has led to major growth in the demand for lime.

  • In 2004, Japan’s industrial production, as measured by the indices of mining and manufacturing, increased by 5.6% compared with 3.3% in 2003. The number of unemployed workers in Japan decreased to 3.2 million from 3.5 million in 2003, and the total labor force decreased to 66.4 million from 66.67 million in 2003. As a result, the unemployment rate in Japan decreased to 4.7% from 5.3% in 2003. Japan’s merchandise trade surplus rose to $110.5 billion from $87.9 billion in 2003. The Japanese yen appreciated by 7.2% to ¥108.17 against $1.00 in 2004.

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