General, Cultivation, Standards, Pests &
Primary Information Services
- Litchi (Litchi
chinensis) a native of China, is grown in India since 18th century.
- Litchi is subtropical
fruit and requires specific cliamte for growth, flowering, fruiting and
quality, with area under its cultivation.
- It is known for its
attractive colour, delicious and juicy fruits with high nutritive value as
well as lot of export potential.
- India is probably the
second largest producer of litchi. Depending on the variety and health of
the tree, the yield varies from 80 kg to 150 kg per tree, according to
- Peeled, seeded lychees
are canned in sugar sirup in India and China and have been exported from
China for many years.
- Browning, or pink
discoloration, of the flesh is prevented by the addition of 4% tartaric
acid solution, or by using 30º Brix sirup containing 0.1% to 0.15% citric
acid to achieve a pH of about 4.5, processing for a maximum of 10 minutes
in boiling water, and chilling immediately.
- The fruits can be
stored in good condition to last for 3 to 4 weeks.
- The average maximum
temperature in the litchi-producing areas of South Africa should be at
least 23 °C during October and 24 °C during November, with a relative
humidity of 50 % and higher.
- Lychees dehydrate
naturally. The skin loses its original color, becomes cinnamon-brown, and
- The flesh turns
dark-brown to nearly black as it shrivels and becomes very much like a
- Major litchi producing
states are Bihar Jharkhand, Tripura, West Bengal, Uttaranchal, Assam and
Punjab with an area of 53600 Ha with a total production of 4.2 lakh
- Fruits are grown in an
area of over 3.83 million ha in India, contributing to an annual
production of around 46.04 million tonnes.
- Cultivated over an area
of 56,400 ha, the fruits production in the country has been increasing at
over nine per cent annually.
- Litchi is in demand
both in fresh as well as in processed form.
- Estimates show that,
annually over 100,000 tonnes of litchi is traded internationally.
- Australia produces
about 5000 tonnes of these crops annually, returning about $22 million.
- The Australian market
is oversupplied at 4000 tonnes for the season.
- Markets such as the US,
Holland and France are known to pay as much as US$14 per kg for Chinese
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