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- Lysine (abbreviated
as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula
- This amino acid is
an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it.
Its codons are AAA and AAG.
- Lysine is a base, as
are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in
hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis.
- As an essential
amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be
ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins.
- L-lysine can be used
to treat mouth and genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus as
well as shingles caused by herpes zoster viruses.
- L-lysine helps
improve the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract and prevent
loss of calcium in the urine. L-lysine may help prevent bone loss
associated with osteoporosis.
- L-lysine in
combination with L-arginine (another amino acid) increases the activity
of bone-building cells and enhances production of collagen.
- L-Lysine is mainly
produced by fermentation using strains of corynebacteria, especially
Corynebacterium glutamicum, which comprises a multi-step process
including fermentation, cell separation by centrifugation or
ultrafiltration, product separation and purification, evaporation and
- The purification
process also comprises a drying step which may involve any suitable
drying means such as a spray granulator, spray dryer, tray dryer, drum
dryer, rotary dryer, and tunnel dryer [4, 67, 80].
- Direct spray drying
of an L-Lysine fermentation broth avoids extensive purification steps
associated with the Llysine hydrochloride process, in particular the use
of expensive ion-exchange.
L-lysine solutions are obtained by heating fermentation broths under
reduced pressure by steam at 130oC using a multipurpose concentrator or
thin film evaporator.
- China's lysine
market saw increased production activity in 2006, with output reaching a
record high of 283,600 tonnes, up 16.6 percent compared with
- China's lysine
production industry is also increasingly integrated with the global
lysine and feed market.
- The country's
current capacity and output now accounts for approximately 40 percent
and 27.5 percent of world's production capacity and output of the amino
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