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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K)[1] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2.
  • This amino acid is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it. Its codons are AAA and AAG.
  • Lysine is a base, as are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis.
  • As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins.

Uses

  • L-lysine can be used to treat mouth and genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus as well as shingles caused by herpes zoster viruses.
  • L-lysine helps improve the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract and prevent loss of calcium in the urine. L-lysine may help prevent bone loss associated with osteoporosis.
  • L-lysine in combination with L-arginine (another amino acid) increases the activity of bone-building cells and enhances production of collagen.

Process

  • L-Lysine is mainly produced by fermentation using strains of corynebacteria, especially Corynebacterium glutamicum, which comprises a multi-step process including  fermentation, cell separation by centrifugation or ultrafiltration, product separation and purification, evaporation and drying.
  • The purification process also comprises a drying step which may involve any suitable drying means such as a spray granulator, spray dryer, tray dryer, drum dryer, rotary dryer, and tunnel dryer [4, 67, 80].
  • Direct spray drying of an L-Lysine fermentation broth avoids extensive purification steps associated with the Llysine hydrochloride process, in particular the use of expensive ion-exchange.
  • Concentrated L-lysine solutions are obtained by heating fermentation broths under reduced pressure by steam at 130oC using a multipurpose concentrator or thin film evaporator.

Market

  • China's lysine market saw increased production activity in 2006, with output reaching a record high of 283,600 tonnes, up 16.6 percent compared with 2005.
  • China's lysine production industry is also increasingly integrated with the global lysine and feed market.
  •  The country's current capacity and output now accounts for approximately 40 percent and 27.5 percent of world's production capacity and output of the amino acid.

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