Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg.
Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe by mass.
constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust by mass, and it is the third
most abundant element dissolved in seawater.
Elemental magnesium is a fairly strong, silvery-white, light-weight
tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although unlike the alkaline
metals, storage in an oxygen free environment is unnecessary because
magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide which is fairly
impermeable and hard to remove.
Magnesium is a highly flammable metal, but while it is easy to ignite
when powdered or shaved into thin strips, it is difficult to ignite in
mass or bulk.
Magnesium compounds are typically white crystals. Most are soluble in
water, providing the sour-tasting magnesium ion Mg2+. Small amounts of
dissolved magnesium ion contributes to the tartness and taste of natural
Magnesium is produced from calcined dolomite under vacuum and at high
temperatures using silicon as a reducing agent.
Magnesium metal is now recovered by two major process routes.
first is the electrolytic recovery of metal from Magnesium chloride that
has been recovered from the raw materials- mostly magnesite and
carnellite, but also sea water.
second is the thermic reduction under vaccum of calcined dolomite with
the addition of ferr-silicon or aluminium.
are two thermic processes.- the Magnetherm process and the Pidgeon
carbotherm ic process, magnesium oxide is reduced with carbon using
modified shock cooling to produce magnesium and carbon monoxide. Both
products are in the vapor phase.
silicothermic process is based on the rea ction of silica with carbon to
give silicon metal which is subsequently used to produce magnesium by
reaction with calcined dolomite. The Pidgeon and Magnetherm processes
employ this procedure.
Magnesium, in its purest form, can be compared with aluminium, and is
strong and light, so it is used in several high volume part
manufacturing applications, including automotive and truck components.
second application field of magnesium is electronic devices. Due to low
weight, good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely
used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and
other electronic components.
Magnesium is even used to make some higher end yo-yos, such as the
Duncan Freehand Mg.
Magnesium alloy products are used for military applications in a wide
range of forms including castings, powders and wrought products.
production of primary magnesium metal increased. The major portion of
the increase again came from China, which produced a record 438,000 t.
Primary magnesium production in the US was estimated as 43,000 t. The
U.S. magnesium producer announced that it would increase its production
capacity from 43,000 tons per year to more than 50,000 tons per year.
demand for magnesium grew at an estimated rate of 16%. This includes
estimates for the magnesium used within China and the CIS.
strongest growth area continued to be die-casting. There was also an
increase in the magnesium used to alloy with aluminium. The principal
area of die-casting use continued to be automotive.
Current world consumption of magnesium metal and magnesium alloys is in
excess of 750,000 tonne per annum. Market projections indicate that
consumption will increase rapidly to over 500,000 tonne per annum.
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