anhydride (cis-butenedioic anhydride, toxilic anhydride,
dihydro-2,5-dioxofuran) is an organic compound with the formula
C4H2O3. In its pure state it is a colourless or white solid with
an acrid odour.
Anhydride has a cyclic structure with a ring containing four
carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
- It is
soluble in acetone, hydrolyzing in water.
international technology has moved towards butane as feed stock,
fluidised bed reactor, and anhydrous recovery system.
- In future,
the technology for MA production, is likely to be based on
butane, fluid bed reactor and anhydrous recovery system.
- It is
prepared in commerce by the oxidation of benzene with catalyst
at high temperatures or by the reaction of C4 (butane) with
oxygen in the presence of vanadium catalyst.
anhydride is also produced by reaction of butane with oxygen
using the vanadium phosphorus oxide heterogeneous catalyst.
- It is used
to prepare Unsaturated polyester resins, lubricating oil
additives, copolymers, fumaric acid, agricultural chemicals,
malic acid, sulfosuccinic acid esters, alkenyl succinic
anhydrides and alkyd resins.
- MA is a
basic chemical used in automotive, shipbuilding, paint and
varnish, construction, agricultural chemistry and other
applications where maleic anhydride is used include the
production of agricultural chemicals, malic acid, copolymers,
fumaric acid, lubricant additives, surfactants and plasticizers.
biggest maleic anhydride suppliers (net exporters) to the global
market are the USA, Japan, Belgium, Italy. The countries of
Canada, emerging economies of the Asia-Pacific region are major
- The demand
for maleic anhydride is great among major buyers which use
maleic anhydride in unsaturated polyester resins.
- Growth in
the worldwide maleic anhydride industry is predominantly in the
butane-to-maleic anhydride route, often at the expense of
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