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  • Forging is probably the oldest metalworking process .
  • Forging is the process by which metal is heated and is shaped by plastic deformation by suitably applying compressive force.
  • Modern metalworking facilities have a variety of types of equipment to use in the forging process, and there are four common mechanized metalworking techniques: drop forging, press forging, roll forging, and cold forging.
  • Most forging operations are carried out hot, although certain metals may be cold-forged.
  • Forging results in metal that is stronger than cast or machined metal parts.


  • Drop forging is a mass production technique in which the metal is hammered between two dies.
  • In press forging, the deformation of metal is accomplished by a squeezing action.
  • The main purpose of roll forging is the reduction of the diameter or thickness of a bar, thereby increasing its overall length.
  • Cold forging is carried out on machines specifically designed for rapid production of large quantities of small and medium sized parts from wire stock.
  • Spray cooling has been important to control die temperature in forging processes for years.
  • Two basic types of forging hammers used are Board hammer and Power hammer and two basic types of forging presses available are Mechanical presses and Hydraulic presses.


  • One of the most widely used computer-aided techniques in simulating and analyzing the metal forming processes including die and preform design is finite element analysis.
  • The reduction of working pressure for cold forging by three techniques were evaluated and tested.They were:1. Pre-chamfering 2. Spread Extrusion 3. Relieve Axis.


  • There has been increasing trend of using continuous cast blooms for forging for reducing the overall forging cost in many large and medium forging units engaged in Closed Die forging.
  • The domestic automotive sector and outsourcing have been the key drivers of growth for the forging industry in India with consistent increase in production, capacity utilization and exports.
  • Forging Indutry Association, with headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio, is comprised of 116 North American producers of forged metal components, accounting for about 61% of the custom forging volume produced annually.

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