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General

  • Molybdenum, is a Group 6 chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 .It has the sixth-highest melting point of any element, and for this reason it is often used in high-strength steel alloys.
  • Molybdenum is found in trace amounts in plants and animals, although excess molybdenum can be toxic in some animals.
  • Molybdenum was discovered in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele and first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm.
  • Molybdenum is a transition metal with an electronegativity of 1.8 on the Pauling scale and an atomic mass of 95.9 g/mole. It does not react with oxygen or water at room temperature.

Process

  • Structure tailoring of electrodeposited Mo (IV)-oxide thin films by thermal oxidation in ambient air to obtain electrochromic Mo (VI)-oxide thin films was exploited for the first time by novel route.
  • Electrosynthesis of Mo (IV)-oxide thin films on Fluorine-doped SnO2 conducting glass substrates were carried from aqueous alkaline solution of ammonium molybdate at room temperature.
  • A study for the optimization of dissolution of the UAlx plates used for irradiation and production of radiomolybdenum. The alloy is dissolved in nitric acid with mercury as catalyst.
  •  The separation and concentration of the molybdenum was achieved using a chromatographic grade alumina
    microspheres column.

Application

  • Molybdenum is used in alloys for its high corrosion resistance and weldability. Most high-strength steel alloys are .25% to 8% molybdenum.
  • More than 43 million kg of molybdenum is used as an alloying agent each year in stainless steels, tool steels, cast irons, and high-temperature superalloys.
  • Molybdenum 99 is used as a parent radioisotope to the radioisotope Technetium 99, which is used in many medical procedures.
  • Molybdenum disulfide is used as a lubricant and an agent. Lead molybdate co-precipitated with lead chromate and lead sulfate is a bright-orange pigment used with ceramics and plastics.

Market

  • For many years the US was the world's largest producer of molybdenum, it looked for a time as though the US might drop to second place behind Chile.
  • US has enormous reserves and substantial copper-molybdenum production capacity that was placed on standby during the lean years, so the potential was always present for the US to regain its production supremacy.
  • The primary mines are swing producers, i.e. they increase their production when the market has higher demand for molybdenum and decrease their production when the demand is down.
  • America that have traditionally produced the bulk of molybdenum have decreased their production and have become swing producers these mines are only able to increase their production, or come back on-stream, when the market demand requires their more costly molybdenum.

Report

  • Molybdenum is a refractory metallic element used principally as an alloying agent in steels, cast irons, and superalloys to enhance hardenability, strength, toughness, and wear and corrosion resistance.
  • Almost all molybdenum is recovered from low-grade deposits containing the mineral molybdenite . Deposits mined primarily for molybdenum provide 65 percent to 70 percent of U.S. output and about 45 percent of world output.
  • The versatility of molybdenum has assured it a significant role in contemporary technology and industry, which increasingly requires materials that are serviceable under ever increasingly higher stresses, greater temperature ranges, and more corrosive environments.
  • Molybdenum does not occur in nature in its free or native state but is found only chemically combined with other elements.

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